1. 1756-1763 Seven Years War: Helped bring about

1.     
Timeline (p.382)

a.     
#1 event and explanation of importance – 1300-1450 Italian
Renaissance: Emphasized
the importance of individual achievement in a wide range of fields, which led
to some of the greatest art mankind has ever seen.

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b.     
#2 event and explanation of importance – 1500-1600 The
Commercial Revolution: Transformed Europe from a local economy into a global
one. This led to new markets and high demand, as population growth was
increasing exponentially.

c.      
#3 event and explanation of importance – 1588 Scientific
Revolution: Ushered
a new era of authority for the scientific community, as a fundamental
transformation in scientific ideas across mathematics, physics, astronomy, and
biology had taken place. This ultimately led to the Enlightenment, which challenged
beliefs surrounding the church and state.

d.     
#4 event and explanation of importance – 1643-1727
Life of Isaac Newton: During his lifetime Newton developed the theory of
gravity, the laws of motion, a new type of mathematics called calculus, and
made breakthroughs in the field of optics such as the reflecting telescope. His
work has given him a nickname: The Father
of Physics.

e.      
#5 event and explanation of importance – 1756-1763 Seven
Years War: Helped
bring about the American Revolution. When the French were expelled from the war,
the British had massive debt. So, they began taxing the colonies that would
later become the United States of America.

 

2.     
Between what dates did the major pattern
of change in Western civilization occur?

What were some of
those major historical changes/trends? – The
major patterns of change occurred between 1450-1750 in Western civilizations.
Some of the major historical changes of this time include the Italian
Renaissance, the Protestant and Catholic Reformations, the Commercial
Revolution, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment.

3.     
What are the major differences between the
Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance? – The Italian Renaissance came earlier and was centered on
realism/ humanism rather than religion. The Northern Renaissance came later and
focused on Classical styles, as it was more connected to religion.

 

4.     
What Protestant churches were established
by the Reformation? Describe the nature of religious warfare. – The Protestant churches established by the
Reformation were the Protestant Church, the Anglican church, Jesuits, and Calvinism. The religious wars in Europe
in the 16th and 17th centuries were gory and bitter, and there was usually no
declared winner. Most wars were in some way resolved with a treaty. These wars eventually
led to a reluctant acceptance of different religions within Europe.

 

5.     
Describe the causes and results of the
commercial revolution. – The price inflation during the 16th century and new colonial
opportunities led to the formation of great trading companies, and the start of
the Commercial Revolution. This revolution improved and stimulated
manufacturing and improved the prosperity of many ordinary people with things
like gold and silver from the new world. However, it also led to the formation
of the proletariat class, as demand outstripped supply.

 

6.     
What was the Scientific Revolution? What
were some of its major discoveries/breakthroughs? – The Scientific Revolution refers to historical
changes in thought & belief through religion, as well as changes in social organization
during the Middle Ages. This came about because of massive scientific and
empirical advances during this time. Some of those important breakthroughs
include the discovery that the planets orbited the Sun (not that the Earth was
in the center) and Newton’s breakthroughs in motion and gravity.

 

7.     
How did the Scientific Revolution and the
Enlightenment change popular culture and daily life? – The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
impacted the culture and daily life of Europe in many powerful ways. Some
examples of this include the decline of religion and its hold on culture and
life within Europe, as well as the creation of a new politics, and the
beginnings of modern-day capitalism.

 

8.     
Vocabulary: Write term and define/describe
it.

a.     
Niccolo Machiavelli – Author of The
Prince, a realistic novel of a discussion of seizing and maintaining power.

b.     
Humanism – A focus on
humanity as the main point of intellectual and artistic endeavor.

c.      
Johannes Gutenberg – Introduced movable
type to western Europe in the 15th century; greatly expanded and improved the
availability of printed materials.

d.     
Martin Luther – German Catholic
monk who initiated the Protestant Reformation; emphasized the primacy of faith
in place of Catholic sacraments for gaining salvation; rejected papal
authority.

e.      
Protestantism – General wave of
religious dissent against the Catholic church; formally began with Martin
Luther in 1517.

f.       
Anglican Church – Form of
Protestantism in England established by Henry VIII.

g.     
Catholic Reformation – Catholic response
to the Protestant Reformation; reformed and revived Catholic doctrine.

h.     
Jesuits – Catholic religious
order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education,
and missionary work outside of Europe.

i.       
Proletariat – Class of people
without access to producing property; usually manufacturing workers, paid
laborers in agriculture, or urban poor; product of the economic changes of the
16th and 17th centuries.

j.       
Scientific Revolution – Process
culminating in Europe during the 17th century; period of empirical advances
associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; became a
central focus of Western culture.

k.     
Copernicus – Polish monk and
astronomer; discredited Hellenistic belief that the sun was at the center of
the universe.

l.       
Galileo – Publicized
Copernicus’s findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; added
discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by the Catholic church
for his work.

m.   
Isaac Newton – English scientist;
author of Principia Mathematica; drew various astronomical and physical
observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws;
established principles of motion and defined forces of gravity.

n.     
John Locke – English
philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through their senses
and reason; argued that the power of government came from the people, not from
the divine right of kings; people had the right to overthrow tyrants.

o.     
Absolute monarchy – Concept of
government developed during the rise of the nation-state in western Europe
during the 17th century; monarchs held the absolute right to direct their
state.

p.     
Louis XIV – Late 17th- and
early 18th-century French king who personified absolute monarchy.

q.     
Glorious Revolution – English political
settlement of 1688 and 1689 that affirmed that parliament had basic sovereignty
over the king.

r.      
Enlightenment – Intellectual
movement centered in France during the 18th century; argued for scientific
advance, the application of scientific methods to study human society; believed
that rational laws could describe social behavior.

s.      
Adam Smith – Established new
school of economic thought; argued that governments should avoid regulation of
economies in favor of the free play of market forces.

 

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