1.7.2 that provides students with opportunities to apply

    1.7.

2 Practice Homework:Practice homework is an activity that provides students with opportunities to apply new knowledge review and reinforce skills and concepts taught in class. It helps students revise information, acquire and develop their skills and makes them independent. It includes: consolidation exercises, essay writing, reading for pleasure, practicing for the mastery of language.

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    1.7.3 Preparation Homework:Preparation homework is any work that provides and gives chances for students to gain and acquire background information for up-coming unit of study so that they are better prepared for their future lessons. It helps students to bring their prior knowledge and experiences to the next classes. This category includes a variety of activities among them background reading, reading English text for class discussion and researching topics for a class unit of work.    1.

7.4 Extension Homework:Extension homework is any task that explores and improves learning in new context. It helps to encourage students and pursue knowledge individually. Further, it aids students to think creatively and critically. Thus, it requires students’ understanding and relates the learning process to the real world. Extension homework has many activities including: writing a book report review, researching, for example; history of Britain, retrieval skills by using computer and internet to find materials that help them in their studies.1.

8 Responsibilities for Homework:Homework becomes increasingly crucial during the learning career. It is considered as an integral part of the curriculum. In this case, homework provides opportunities to students in order to work independently and take responsibility for organizing their work that why it is important in raising student achievement through solidifying skills and developing new ones. Therefore, homework bridges the gap between school and home so that students, teachers and parents can monitor the progress.    1.8.1 Teacher’s Responsibilities:The class teacher controls the direction of homework and the nature of tasks undertaken.

Thus, the teacher has to:Ø  Use practice homework for the materials that have been taught before.Ø  Give full, clear and comprehensive instruction.Ø  Set the deadline for completing homework and ensure to return it back.

Ø  Separate homework assignment from unfinished class work.Ø  Reduce the amount of problems, for example; in copying the homework and make photocopies to win more time.    1.8.2 Parents’ Responsibilities:The role of parents is crucial if a student is to gain success from homework. To reinforce the value of homework through positive feedback would give students confidence and high achievement. Therefore, parents can assist by:Ø  Providing quiet place, appropriate time and comfortable materials.

Ø  Checking if all homework being returned to school.Ø  Taking into account their learning styles and providing them with short breaks to relax and focus.Ø  Checking the time spent on individual tasks.Ø  Providing school with information about any problems and difficulties through student planner.

    1.8.3 Students’ Responsibilities:Homework helps students to develop skills and good habits towards their learning.

Besides, it encourages them to take responsibility and manage their time. Therefore, student has to:Ø  Copy down instructions for the task and deadline date into the homework dairy.Ø  Make sure that they understand the objective and direction of the homework.

Ø  Inform the class teacher of any difficulties or needs before leaving the classroom.Ø  Ensure that the homework is completed and handed in to meet the deadline.Ø  Avoid copying and cheating.1.9 The Benefits and Drawbacks of Homework:The issue of homework has historically debated and questioned among researchers, schools, parents and students. Most argue that the homework is beneficial because it facilitates the learning process.

However, it can be associated with drawbacks.    1.9.1 The Benefits of Homework:Homework is an effective tool to integrate learning when it is used appropriately. Proponents of homework believe that homework can:Ø  Provide the teacher with feedback about students’ understanding, “the most obvious benefits that it will improve students’ understanding of the material covered”.

(Cooper et al., 2006; MC Pherson, 2005; Brewster and Fager, 2000).Ø  Promote and develop a link and opportunities between home and school by encouraging parents’ involvement, “homework promotes greater parental appreciation and involvement in schooling”. (Cooper et al., 2006; MC Pherson, 2005; Cooper, 1994 a).

Ø  Assist in the development of generic skills by developing good habits, self-discipline, self- direction and the use of other resources, and encouraging ownership and responsibility for learning, “homework helps students develop good habits, such as, goal setting, following directions, organizing materials, planning ahead, and budgeting time, as well as strategies for dealing with mistakes, difficulties, and destructions “.(Center for Public Education, 2007b; Cooper et al., 2006; Bempechat, 2004; Corno and Xu, 2004; West Allegheny School Discrit, n.

d).    1.9.1 The Drawbacks of Homework:Homework is seen as a symptom tool that decreased students’ achievement. Those who are against homework claim that:Ø  Homework can act to the disadvantage of school when it increase negative attitudes and reduce opportunities to develop academic skills. Horowitz (2005) argues that “mismatches in homework assigned and student readiness can result in frustration and contribute to negative attitudes toward school”.Ø  Homework can be detrimental to the individuals when it reduces motivation to learn, “critics say it is questionable whether homework done at the end of the long day when motivation and concentration are low, has any benefits at all”. (Leone, 2005; James, 2000).

Ø  Homework can have a negative impact on the family, i.e., it disrupt and causes friction within the family life, “excessive homework often create tension between parents and their children because it takes away from family time”.(Cleminitt, 2007; Moorman and Haller, 2006a; Checkly, 2003; MC Entire, 2001).

Cooper (2001) stated that “homework is a source of complaint and friction between home and school”.