1. complete blockage between the ascending and descending

1. We were assigned to present on the problem statement. Inthe problem statement we were supposed to identify the reason behind Tim’sreading change after the accident. Before the accident, Tim was a very healthyperson who has a heart rate of 65bpm and blood pressure of 115/80 mmHg. Afterthe accident, Tim’s heart rate increased to 150bpm while his blood pressuredecreased to 75/60 mmHg. The reason behind this is due to hypovolemic shock.

During the accident, Tim suffered from severe bleeding injuries. This may havecaused him to lose more than 20% of his blood. There would be insufficientamount of blood in circulation for heart to be an effective pump. Therefore,the blood pressure would drop and to compensate for the drop in blood pressurethe heart would speed up by pumping blood at a higher rate to ensure that thereis sufficient amount of blood around the body.

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2. The aorta is the main artery that carries oxygenatedblood to all the different parts of the body. An example of underdevelopedaorta would be the interrupted aorta arch.

This a rare heart defect that occurswhen the baby is still in the mother’s womb. A new-born that is diagnosed withinterrupted aortic arch would face a complete blockage between the ascendingand descending aorta. Therefore, blood is unable to reach a new-born’s lowerbody.The aortic valve closes off the left ventricle that holdsthe oxygen-rich blood before it is being pumped out to the body. It also opensto allow blood to leave the heart from the left ventricle to the aorta and onto the body. These actions occur very quickly to prevent regurgitation ofblood.

An example of an underdeveloped aortic valve is aortic stenosis. Aorticstenosis occurs when the aortic valve is too small, narrow or stiff. This wouldmean that the valve would not open all the way, causing the heart to exert moreforce to push the blood across the valve. Over a period of time, thisadditional stress would weaken the heart. The left ventricle discharges blood into the pulmonarycircuit. The left ventricle requires more force to propel blood through thesystemic circuit than around the pulmonary circuit.

This is due to the thickmuscular wall of the left ventricle. One example of an underdeveloped leftventricle would be the hypoplastic left heart syndrome. New-borns that arediagnosed are not able to pump oxygenated blood to the body therefore the rightside of the heart must pump blood to the lungs and also the rest of the body.For the first few days after they are born, the right side of the heart is ableto pump blood to both the lungs and rest of the body through a blood vesselthat links the pulmonary artery directly to the aorta. However, after a fewdays, the vessels would close, and blood would not be able to be pumped out tothe body by the right heart. Therefore, making it a life-threatening defect.

The mitral valve closes off the left atrium, collecting theoxygenated blood coming in from the lungs. The valve would open to allow bloodto pass from the left atrium to the left ventricle.