1. Effect of sleep patterns and disturbed sleep

1.   Hannah G. Lund, B.A.

a, Brian D.Reider, B.A.b, Annie B. Whiting, R.N.

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c, and J. RoxannePrichard, Ph.Db,* (2009). Sleep and Distress: examining sleepingpatterns and causes of disturbed sleep in college students. Department of Psychology & MassachusettsGeneral Hospital. Received: 26.03.

2009.2.    Effectof sleep patterns and disturbed sleep in the college students population.3.    It wasa correlational study.

4.    Thevariables involved were: sleep patterns, physical and mental health, study& mood disturbance.5.    Thevariables thought to be predictive are sleep quality, mood and health.6.    Thevariables thought to be predicted are sleep disturbance and academic stress.7.    The hypothesiswas that sleep patterns would predict sleep disturbance and other things like moodand health of a person.

8.    Theparticipants were 420 male and 705 females (n= 1,125) students between the ageof 17 and 24 at bigger private university. The mean age was 20 in whichfreshmen and sophomores were 27% each, 20% seniors and 24% juniors, out oftotal 86% of participants were Caucasian.9.    TheMaterials used were as follows:(a) the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) comparespoor and good quality sleepers by measuring seven different areas, scoring wasbased on a Likert scale. Scores were split into three categories: optimal (<=5),borderline (6-7) and poor (>=8). The global score more than 5 is indicativeof poor quality-sleeper and score of 5 or less is indicative of good-quality.(b) the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a questionnaire used identifyexcessive sleepiness, scores range between 0 to 24 in which score over 10indicate significant levels of daytime sleepiness.

The online study alsoinclude other three scales related to sleep, mood and stress named  the Horne-Ostburg Morningness EveningnessScale (MES),  the Subjective Units ofDistress Scale (SUDS) and the Profile of Mood Stage(POMS). In addition to thesescales questions related to academic performance, health and psychoactive druguse were also to participants.10. Ane-mail was sent to all the participants and they were asked to complete andreturn the survey. Respondents older than 24 were excluded.

11. Disturbedsleep was noticed in students. Only 40% were categorized as good sleepers byPSQI; bedtime and risetime got delayed on weekends.

Students were takingprescriptions and drugs to alter sleep. More problems with physical and psychologicalhealth were observed in poor sleepers.12. Althoughthis study demonstrates the effect of poor sleep in college students, but stillthere are some factors which cannot be ignored, like there is a possibility thatstudy may have been done in a busy city where poor sleep is a common thing for people.Moreover survey is done only a single time and value can vary during second surveydepending on different possible reasons.