1. The three main patterns of hormone secretion are humoral,hormonal, and neural. These hormone secretions are responsible for managingdifferent hormones. Below is a description of each stimulus.
· The humoral stimuli manage blood level changes due to non-hormonechemicals. For example, if the body’s blood sugar levels were high then thehumoral stimuli would stimulate the pancreas to release insulin in order to bringthe blood glucose levels back down to normal range. · The hormonal stimuli will release hormones whenever triggered byanother hormone within the endocrine system. For example, the hypothalamusproduces hormones that stimulate the anterior pituitary gland and causes it torelease hormones. · The neural stimuli respond to nerve stimulation and releaseshormones when stimulated. It is actually responsible for stimulating the adrenalglands and releasing norepinephrine and epinephrine hormones when the bodysensing danger. This is also referred to as the flight-in-fight response.
2. The hypothalamus andpituitary gland work together and are known as the command center of theendocrine system. They hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland communicatethrough the hypophyseal portal system. This is known as a bridge between the hypothalamusand pituitary gland. When thehypothalamus releases hormones it travels through the portal system until itreaches the anterior pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then release its ownhormones.
3. The Hydrophilic hormones are mostly amino acid-based peptides andproteins. They are soluble in water but not in lipids. They are unable to crossthe cell membrane and require a transduction system to send signals across thecell membrane.
Hydrophobic hormones are made up of mostly steroids andtherefore are soluble in lipids, but not in water. They can also cross the cellmembrane unlike hydrophilic hormones. 4. Insulin and glucagon are hormones that are secreted from by the pancreasand are in charge of regulating glucose levels in the blood. When glucoselevels are too high the pancreas releases insulin. Insulin then increases theliver’s storage of glycogen which brings blood sugar levels back down.
However,if glucose levels are too low, the pancreas releases glucagon which breaks downglycogen in order to raise blood sugar levels back up. 5. Here are the following descriptions of the hormones thyroid,parathyroid, adrenal glands, pineal gland and the thymus gland.
o The thyroid is located in theneck, in front of the trachea, where it wraps around it. One hormone that thethyroid releases are calcitonin. Calcitonin is released whenever there is arise in blood calcium levels.
By releasing calcitonin, the hormone is able toreduce the blood calcium levels. One way of doing this is by increasing calciumloss through the urine. o The Parathyroid is located inthe thyroid gland towards the back. Most people have four parathyroid glands.
Two on each side. The parathyroid releases the parathyroid hormone alsoreferred to as PTH. PTH is responsible for regulating calcium levels.o The Adrenal glands arelocated on top of the kidneys. There are two glands total. One on each kidney.
They are responsible for regulating sodium and potassium ions through theurine, sweat and, saliva. o The Pineal gland is locatedinside the bran, just behind the third cerebral ventricle, not too far from thethalamus. Not much is known about the pineal gland, except that it produces themelatonin hormone which helps regulate sleep.
o The Thymus gland is locatedin the upper anterior part of the chest, between the lungs. Not much is knownabout the thymus gland, but what is known is that it plays a role in the immunesystem. The thymus gland produces the hormone thymosin, which helps contributeto the disease-fighting T lymphocyte cells.