1. IntroductionThe motivation word is used by mosteducators to describe some processes that let the behaviour start, give apurpose to behaviour and make the behaviour consistent. Motivation is necessaryto maintain the desire to reach a goal. Both learning and motivation areimportant to achieve something. Learning makes us gather new knowledge, skillsand motivation pushes us or stimulate us to experience learning process. Motivationis accepted essential in language learning success. Motivated students are moreeager to learn while the less motivated students are tend to be distracted.
Motivated students participate in lessons more than the others. Students’learning results are shaped by motivation type and level. There aredifferent types of motivation related to second language learning. IntegrativeMotivation means that having an interest to the language, the culture and thepeople who speak the target language. Instrumental Motivation means that havingpragmatic reasons such as getting a job.
Thisstudy aims at examining the relationship between the instrumental andintegrative motivation that students have in Anatolian High School classrooms. 2. Literature Review2.1 Types of motivation1. Students who have integrative motivation desire tobe associated with the people and culture of the country. Students can be integrativelymotivated if they have positive attitude toward target language, want toparticipate target language community, eager to learn new things about art,literature, music, culture. Integrative motivated student can be successful onthe account of their intrinsic motivation.
But it does not mean that studentshave only one type of motivation. Brown (2000) gave example of foreignstudents who live in America. The students learn English for academic goalswhile wanting to be associated with the people and culture of the country. Thisexample is explicitly evidence that integrative and instrumental motivationscan mutually exist in a student.2.
Instrumental motivation is related to pragmaticpurposes. Someone wants to learn a language for high grade, business, power,career, getting a job easily…etc. Although language teachers prefer studentsto have integrative motivation, instrumental motivation is also common amongthe language learners. There are many reasons to have instrumental motivation.A learner could get promotion, get a better job or get high marks.
These areprevailing and authentic reasons to learn a language. Students rarely have onlyone motivation type so it is beneficial to have both instrumental andintegrative motivation.3. “Intrinsic motivation pushes the student to learnwithout rewards, because the need is innate or come from inside or depends ontheir own will” (Lightbown and Spada, 1999, p.
56-57). Intrinsic motivatedstudents are eager and volunteer to experience and learn what they considerthat it is significant and worth to try. Intrinsicmotivation emerges when students do not need any external rewards such asprizes, money, acclaim…etc. Students simply make an activity for enjoyment orfor an opportunity to explore, learn, and experience it.
4. (Arnold, 2000, p. 14) defines extrinsic motivationas students get a reward or avoid punishment to achieve something or to study.Integrative and instrumental motivations are components of the extrinsicmotivation.
Students who have extrinsic motivation are in tendency to get areward or reinforcement. They have expectations from outside. Extrinsicmotivation is not as effective as intrinsic motivation because when the rewardor punishment is put away, the learner finds no reason to accomplish the task.Claiming that the extrinsic motivation is not influential is not factualbecause learners can reach their certain goals if they are motivatedextrinsically.
2.2 Factorsthat affect motivation in second language learningAccording toHarmer (1991, p. 4) there are four fundamental factors that affect learners’motivation:1. Physical Condition:Educational environment should provide a convenient setting in terms of the airquality, temperature, acoustics and other facilities. Learners can be affectedby the school and classroom design. Poor physical conditions could be the causeof lower motivation and off-task behaviours.2. Teachers: The teachers are one ofthe vital sources of motivation and demotivation at the same time.
A teachercould make a lesson entertaining for both himself/herself and the students bymotivating the class.3. Method of Teaching: Method ofteaching is the way how teacher teaches to students, which technique orapproach he uses. Teachers should provide motivation to their students togain them to lesson. Teachers can modify methods to students’ level and theyshould know students’ learning strategies and their motivation.4. Success: There are differentdefinitions of success but it might mean that something different to people,level of challenge adjusted by teacher or difficulty of work and activity.
Harmer stated that high challenge activities can affect motivation negatively.Students can be demotivated by too low or too high level of difficulty. If welook at Krashen’s affective filter hypothesis, emotional expressionsliketiredness, depression etc. affects negatively the learning period of thestudents. But low anxiety affects success positively especially in secondlanguage acquisition. 2.
3 The importance of motivation insecond language learning”Motivation is one of the mainfactors that affect language learning. Most teachers and researchers havewidely accepted motivation as one of the key factors which influence the rateand success of second/foreign language learning. Moreover, motivation providesthe primary impetus to initiate learning the L2 and later the driving force tosustain the long and tedious learning process; indeed, all the other factorsinvolved in L2 acquisition presuppose motivation to some extent” (Dörnyei,1998, as cited in Huang 2007). Motivated students are more eager tolearn; they get involved the lessons ambitiously and pay more attention to thetasks or activities. In contrast, students who are less motivated havedifficulties in paying attention to the lessons and they are likely tomisbehave.