1. paper, based on secondary data, will provide

1.
Introduction

These days, teenage
pregnancy is a social problem and an important public health problem in Vietnam. According to Vietnam
maternal and child health care apartment, the percentage of teenagers who have
got pregnant has increased over the period: in
2011: 3,1%; in 2012: 3,2% (Mai, 2014). Moreover, it
leads to many serious results including abortion. In 2011, abortion rates in
teen mothers was quite high, at 2,4% in total pregnant women then this figure
declined to 2,3% in 2012 (Mai, 2014). Teenage pregnancy results from
numerous risk factors and also brings a variety of effects including physical
and mental ones (Kirby, Lepore & Ryan,
2005). However, a majority of teenagers as
well as their parents are totally not aware of this dangerous phenomenon.
Therefore, this paper, based on secondary data, will provide information on the
risk factors, the effects and possibly solutions to teenage pregnancy in
Vietnam.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

2. Discussion of findings

2.1. What are the risk factors of
teenage pregnancy?

Numerous
research has been carried to find out many factors which are associated with
teenage pregnancy.

First
of all, a
clear link has been established between social backgrounds and early
childbearing. It is suggested that young women from socially disadvantaged
family backgrounds characterized by poverty, early motherhood and low parental
education are at higher risk of being pregnant in their teen years of age (Shapiro,
& Miller, 1998; as cited in Woodward, Fergusson & Horwood, 2001). In addition, family contributed a
major role in the unintended pregnancy among young women. For example,
teenagers who live far away from their home, have problematic relationships
with their parents or go through a marital breakdown before are more likely to
become mothers at a very young age. Besides, parents nowadays are still
unwilling to speak openly about sex, especially sexual behaviors and contraception
(Kanku & Mash, 2010). Therefore, teenagers are lack of background knowledge
about sex and unable to protect themselves from early pregnancy which is an
alarming problem around the world.

Second,
a number of individual factors increase the possibility of teenage pregnancy
and parenthood. Early-maturing girls have a tendency to
get pregnant at their teen years than
others. Aggressive or antisocial young women are also at an increased risk of
teenage pregnancy (Woodward, Fergusson & Horwood, 2001). Likewise, there is considerable
evidence that rates of pregnancy at young ages are related to drug users, with
findings of a large proportion of teenagers who become early mothers had a
prior history of overusing drugs as well as alcohol.

2.2. What are the effects of teenage
pregnancy?

Teenage
pregnancy can bring many serious problems to teen mothers. When they know they
are pregnant, there are two options for them to choose. If they choose
abortion, it can cause many problems such as infection, perforation of the
uterus and the most serious problem – infertility which means
that they cannot get pregnant anymore. If they decide to marry and give birth,
they will have to stop studying in high schools, universities or colleges. Teen mothers are less likely to
finish their study than those who avoid being pregnant during their school
years (Socolov et al., 2017). As a consequence, they cannot find a suitable job
to earn money and support their children. It is possibly that teen mothers will
have to deal with financial problems and domestic violence. Therefore, they are
easily suffer from stress or even depression which is harmful to their health
and their babies. When women give birth in their teen years of age, they are at
risk of giving birth prematurely (Beirne, 2017). Teenagers, especially those
under 15 years old are vulnerable to anemia which is also called low blood
iron. Anemia can make the mothers feel tired or cause some complications. During
pregnant period and laboring, complications is the second most popular cause of
death in teenagers 15-19 years old (Socolov et al., 2017).

Another
effect of teenage pregnancy is related to the physical health of the children
along with their future development. A preemie, who is born before 37
completed weeks of pregnancy
will miss out on an important growth taking place in the final weeks of
pregnancy. As a result, the children may become underweight and have small
head sizes.
Those babies are likely to suffer from several problems that can affect their
brain and their organs (Beirne, 2017). Besides, the children who were born to
these teen mothers also experience 2.5 times higher risk of losing their lives
than those born to women aged between 20 and 24 (Socolov et al., 2017). On the
other hand, owing to uncertainty of the future and
lack of supports during pregnancy, teens may take up unhealthy habits, such as
drinking and smoking which is really harmful to their health and their baby. Foetal
alcohol syndrome (FAS) – an incurable syndrome, is more likely to affect babies
of teen moms and the syndrome is associated with drinking alcohol during
pregnancy (Sharma, 2012). Sometimes, problems during pregnancy and infancy are
not identified, but these can come up later. Pre-term children can have
difficulties in learning and thinking and their development can be much slower
than normal ones.

2.3. What are the solutions?

There
are much that can be done to protect teenagers from pregnancy. Firstly, schools
as well as universities should provide adequate sexuality education including contraception,
sexual abuse and so on by making use of the media, especially the Internet.
This solution can help students have more useful information about protecting
themselves. It also can encourage responsible behavior, increase the use of contraception. Health
service providers have sought to provide birth control services to young
people, seeing use of contraceptives as potentially the most successful
intervention in pregnancy prevention (Howard, 2014). Therefore,
teenagers can effectively prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during
their teenage years when most young
people become sexually curious.

Secondly,
Vietnam government should plan different youth development
programs to support teenagers because research have showed that youth
development programs can reduce sexual risk behaviors and teenage pregnancy
(Kirby, 1999). These programs assist teenagers to set their goals,
finish study and plan their futures. As Pagliaro & Klindera (1999) say:

Youth
development seldom tackles isolated problems—such as sexual risk behaviors—but
focuses instead on providing holistic support and opportunities for young
people. Youth development is a strategy that attempts to meet the needs young
people themselves identify: to have life skills, to be cared for and safe, to
be valued and useful, and to be spiritually grounded. It meets these needs by
building on young people’s capacities, assisting them to cultivate their own
talents and to increase their feelings of self-worth, and easing their
transition to adulthood.

Thirdly, making contraception
available to teenagers is another solution to teenage pregnancy. Confidential, affordable and accessible contraceptive services may ensure that teens will have
what they need to protect themselves. As a result, there could be a decline in
the number of unintended pregnancy cases as well as infection with HIV ones.

Final thing that we can do to protect teenagers is supporting
them. Society need to be concern about family communication about sex. Parents should speak about
sexual behaviors openly to provide their kids with appropriate information
about it. Moreover, educational opportunities, health education about parenting
skills and other supports should be well-prepared for teens while pregnant and
after birth so they can have a better life.  

3.
Conclusion

x

Hi!
I'm Mack!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out