IntroductionTheemergence of Knowledge Management (KM) over the last few decades were a resultfrom many academical, societal and business activities. The roots extendfurther for millennial, over particular countries on the west and east.Meanwhile, others interconnected with recent gather cognitive and informationsciences (Wiig, 2000). KM itself has become a significant approach of an organisationwith its complexity is often being infuriated by Information system (IS)researchers.
But the field is still considered under development for quite along period of time. The people responsible for the thrive on competitiveenvironment have frequently work their best to create the finest knowledge intheir area of expertise (Wiig, 2000).Acombination of knowledge and other information communication (IC) act as two principleswithin organisation (Steward 1997; Sveiby, 1997).
They have created the keyresources for effectual activities and form valuable assets for exchange orsales (Wiig, 2000).IS researchers for instance have started to encourage lessonin IS. It is notable known as Knowledge Management System (KMS).
The importanceof KMS is to aid in creation, transfer and applying these knowledges withinorganisation (Alavi & Leidner 2001).KMdefine as a process by which systematic method is being used to apprehend,construct, handle and dissemble of knowledge within the organisation. Thus,cause an organisation to work quicker, reprocess the same great methods andlower the cost from various projects (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Pasternack& Viscio 1998; Pfeffer & Sutton, 1999; Ruggles & Holtshouse, 1999).Nevertheless, as organisation strive for continuous improvement on KM, so doesthe competitors in sustaining KM practices. These practices become moresophisticated and far beyond the reach and must be originated from the historicroots of Knowledge-based perspective (Wiig, 2000). To discover the opportunityahead, researchers need to pay attention to the power of past of KM.
2. LiteratureReviewAccordingto Wiig (2000) managing knowledge aspects have been complicated andunsystematic until now. However, in the 13th century, it took intoaccount the methodical and philistine of KM perspective (Wiig, 2000).
Manyresearchers pinpointed the current focus on knowledge in KM field is leaningtowards commercial effectiveness. Although there is emergence of effectualbehaviour to assist competitive excellence but numerous factors must be comprehendedas well (Boulding, 1966; Cronin, 1986). Alaviand Leidner (2001) highlight, the prospect of knowledge on the servicesrendered by valuable assets relies on the integration of both and know-how theknowledge.
This is being applied in the organisation. However,knowledge-related resources are hard to comprehend and socially abstruse. Theknowledge is implanted in the firm and can be carried out through multiplesections include the culture, identity, daily routines, systems as well as theindividual employees (Grant, 1996a, 1996b; Nelson & Winter 1982; Spender,1996a, 1996b). Ifthe organisation able to apply these knowledges and consider them as assets,they may able to produce long-term sustainable competitive advantage. But toachieve these, the information technology plays important role in effectuatingit. In order to do so, notable researchers especially in IT literature oftenseek the enquiry of understanding the knowledge by differentiating knowledge,information and data (Alavi & Leidner, 2001). Fahey and Prusak (1998) describedthat if knowledge is not different from data or information then there are nothingformidable about knowledge management.
Ingeneral perspective, data is treated as raw number and facts, while informationis treated as processed data and knowledge is genuine information (Dretske,1981; Machlup, 2014; Vance, 1997). Yet, knowledge is information owned byindividuals. It is treated as personalised information which may or may not becorrespondent to facts, rules, procedures, concepts, scope and judgements. Theradical appearance of knowledge may similar to other forms of IS. It is oftengeared towards individuals able to assign meaning to information and learn theknowledge in information or data (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).Withmind concentrate on this perspective knowledge, it enables individuals (users)to broaden their knowledge and apply them to organisational needs (Alavi &Leidner, 2001). In accordance to knowledge, KM is suggested to be focus onstrategic advancement and creating the intellectual capital.
By applyingvarious concept of knowledge, each view can be assumed as different ways inhandling knowledge and other dissimilar perspective of role when assisting theKM (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).3. Discussionand Analysis3.1 The rootsof Knowledge ManagementNowadays,schools and universities aim to provide support lesson required for leadingminority in KM. The knowledge that they acquire is coming from philosophicalthinking whereas others obtained from particular expertise of environment.Meanwhile, the rest absorbed from learning through educators and businessleaders’ reforms (Wiig, 2000).
Therecent intellectual roots of KM are taken from explanation of economic drivingforces in “Knowledge era” and step taken by 20th century result toenhance capabilities (Kelly, 1996; Romer, 1989).Wiig(2000), claimed that the roots of KM can be further taken from Historical efforts and 20th century results to enhanceeffectiveness as explained below: -HistoricalEfforts I. Religionand Philosophy· To infuse the characterand nature of knowledge and the sanctions of individuals “to think forthemselves’. II.
Psychology· To comprehend theimportant role of knowledge in human cognitive. III. Economicsand social sciences· To recognise theimportant of knowledge in society.
IV. BusinessTheory· To understand the workactivities and its organisation. 20thCentury Results to Enhance Effectiveness I. Taylorism· Also known asRationalisation of Work· Includes Total QualityManagement (TQM) and Management of Sciences to refine effectiveness. II. Psychology,Cognitive Sciences, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Learning Organisation· To improve quickly thancompetition thus provide basic for the people to be more effective.
3.2 Driving Forces InfluencingKnowledge ManagementThedriven forces behind KM can be explained by the evolution of several factors.KM is essential for driven forces such as competition, market place demands,new operating and management practices. This may also include the availabilityof KM approaches and information technology (Wiig, 2000). The driven forcesthat influence KM is categorised into two:the external driving forces and the internaldriving forces. ExternalDriving ForcesIndeed,to remain competitive most organisations need to be nimble and operate in thefast pace of environment that keeps on changing.
Their growth and success oftensubjected to the ability for them able to use external forces wisely. Wiig(2000) stated external factors such asglobalisation, sophisticated customers and competitors should be consideredif organisations want to be nimble in the fast growth environments. I. GlobalisationWiththe increase amount of business going global, the international commerce alsohas increasing recently. Business tends to compete with one another to increasetheir volume of sales by selling the products or services at low cost.
The productsthat once created within the local country are now may able to be assemblingacross multiple sources in worldwide at low cost (Wiig, 2000). Take intoexample, the Smartphone that we use daily, certain parts are made fromdifferent countries even though the brand itself is widely from known countriessuch as USA or Korea.Thelimited resources in developed countries can know be found in developingcountries. Although the capabilities of the production and services can be findin advanced countries but with managing the knowledge and know how to obtainthe development, they act as cut-throat competition to ensure the survival andthe effectiveness in term of operations, marketing and development of productsand services (Wiig, 2000). II. SophisticatedCustomersIfcompanies want to thrive and grow, they need to listen on customer demands. Oneof the reasons for the failure of Toys R Us is that the company did not listento their customers.
These days customers prefer for better features, newrequirements, high quality of products and reasonable prices and quick feedbackin terms of the products and services (Wiig, 2000). In case of Toys R Us, thecompany fail to take into account that customers preference to buy onlinerather than coming to brick and mortarstore (Hartung, 2017). By failing toinvest in e-commerce, this had lead the company to lost its customers and thuscause them to go bankrupt (Lutz, 2017). III.
SophisticatedCompetitorsIndeed,the reminder for continuous improvement for every organisation is competitors.Without competitors the organisation may not constantly try to innovatethemselves in producing better products, services and practices. Theorganisation may need to implement discontinuesbreak-throughs by using new technologies and knowledge practices to ensurethey able to keep the requirement in building more competitive expertise (Wiig,2000). Agood example would be Apple versus Samsung. In order to compete in becomingworld number one brand in Smartphone industry they simultaneously keep onimproving their technologies and use the knowledge to build better product andservices specifically for their customers.
Other internal factors namedsophisticated suppliers may need to be considered as well for the impellentcause towards KM. InternalDriving ForcesOtherthan visible factors shown by the organisation, it is important also to lookthrough the internal driving forces. In organisation the creation of numerousprocesses and activities, have provided favourable circumstances for managingknowledge in a better way. While in some case it might be treated the oppositeway. The exemplary of significant changes may include: I. Barrierin Organisation effectivenessIngeneral, organisation effectiveness is restricted by the flows of work withinthe organisation, information access and others. The barrier itself has beenreduced by continuous improvement, the investment in technology such as IT, ICand logistics.
Even the personnel work and tasks have been assigned properlyand information is being enhanced with better accuracy, complete and timely fordecision making (Wiig, 2000). Instead of focusing in efficient and dailyroutine the current demand focus on more effectiveness and intelligentbehaviour possess by the individual within the organisation. The bottlenecks(barrier) from typical and tangible field to knowledge-related perspective mayrequire greater understanding and enhancement in expertise (Wiig, 2000).II. Boosttechnological effectiveness Throughthe usage of KM methods, the advancement in information management andtechnology and appliance of AI are made feasible (Wiig, 2000). The evidencescan be shown through collaboration of groupware work, the ability to encode forknowledge bases, the performance support system (which can be learn throughacademic module in certain circumstances) and the advancement of search engines(Wiig, 2000). A good example for the advancement of search engines would be thegoogle search engine itself, where specific words and enquiries can be use tosearch particular matters. III.
Tounderstand human cognitive capacityThirdly,the reason behind the internal forces of KM would be understanding on howintellectual and mental of people act as the centre of effective organisation (Wiig,2000). Similar to the subject acquire through human resource management andorganisational behaviour, people plays role for the effective KM inorganisation. By incorporating the understanding of cognitive functions such asmental models, how the knowledge is being comprehended, they may affect thedecision making and knowledge-based work when strategising to conduct KM (Wiig,2000). Failure to understand the human cognitive aspects, the organisation maynot able to move on and would continue to repeat the same mistake withoutmaking any progress. 3.3 KnowledgeManagement in the FutureKMpractitioners perceive that KM has brought new characters into the organization(Wiig, 2000). KM capability are currently in upturn as managers at allrespective levels within the organization must act upon to become moreintelligent in work and nimble with the demands of advanced technology and thereduction of workforce.
The traditional practices are not suitable in hightechnological savvy environment and the ephemeral employment in the recent days(Warier, 2003). Asbeing emphasised before, the KM methods and technologies can supportorganization to enhance not only their product quality but examining theirprocesses and to meet their customer expectations. Imagine KM is regarded asobject or associate with information access, then KM would be assumed asdeveloping and handling knowledge stocks. If it is viewed as process, then itmay focus on knowledge flow, creation, sharing and distribution of knowledgeprocess. (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).
KM is quite broad and have many differentmeaning. It depends on how the users utilise the knowledge for. In2004, it was projected that the private and public sectors in the worldwidehave spent $5 billion to $12 billion on KM services (depend on the nature ofmarket for study group) (Warier, 2003). Even though huge amount of investmentand hour required to build this KM but it help the organization i.e. governmentagencies and institutions to understand better on things and helps them to makea room for improvement and control the cost. These days, organisation realisethat there is numerous amount of information that required being stored.Without the KM, they would not understand how to include the data into contextand what are the factors and methods that can be employed to bring more benefittowards the organization.
By using KM systems, organization may able toconsolidate their assets, understand how to do their internal operations inbetter way and constituent bases (Warier, 2003). WithKM it markets the development and application of method that can be consideredas enrichment for the personnel and attainment of organizational goal. In suchascertain the organisation to have long term survival or better deliveryquality services on the continuous future (Wiig, 2000). 4. ConclusionTo conclude KMwill keep on evolving and drawn upon assistance from many areas such as theoretical,practices and application.
Organisations become more aware on how knowledgeplay useful role in their organisation. They even pay more attention on theircompetitor and try to enhance their competitive power on their IC. The rootbehinds the KM approach can be further seen through the internal and externalforces that lead to effectual in KM. Yet, organisation who pursue the KMwithout fully understanding the effect and benefit of developing them maycreate danger instead of value within the organisation. As being mentioned before, by enhancing KM, anorganisation may able to survive and thrive for long-term.
Furthermore, the KMeffort may serve major benefits towards the organisation. Other than supportingthe strategy of KM, it help the individuals to set up priority setting andminimise costs and risks associate with the process, products and servicesincurs. Nevertheless, bear in mind that not all KM can be use in everyorganisation. To become more effective, most organisations should createapproaches that may help the personal to acquire better understanding on theknowledge.
Thus help the implementation, operating and process flow of work andtasks to become more smoothly. On contrary, when mentioning about the roots ofKM, the explanation is not simply from the past only. The roots behind the reasonthe KM is essential for the organisation must be considered as well.