emergence of Knowledge Management (KM) over the last few decades were a result
from many academical, societal and business activities. The roots extend
further for millennial, over particular countries on the west and east.
Meanwhile, others interconnected with recent gather cognitive and information
sciences (Wiig, 2000). KM itself has become a significant approach of an organisation
with its complexity is often being infuriated by Information system (IS)
researchers. But the field is still considered under development for quite a
long period of time. The people responsible for the thrive on competitive
environment have frequently work their best to create the finest knowledge in
their area of expertise (Wiig, 2000).
combination of knowledge and other information communication (IC) act as two principles
within organisation (Steward 1997; Sveiby, 1997). They have created the key
resources for effectual activities and form valuable assets for exchange or
sales (Wiig, 2000).IS researchers for instance have started to encourage lesson
in IS. It is notable known as Knowledge Management System (KMS). The importance
of KMS is to aid in creation, transfer and applying these knowledges within
organisation (Alavi & Leidner 2001).
define as a process by which systematic method is being used to apprehend,
construct, handle and dissemble of knowledge within the organisation. Thus,
cause an organisation to work quicker, reprocess the same great methods and
lower the cost from various projects (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Pasternack
& Viscio 1998; Pfeffer & Sutton, 1999; Ruggles & Holtshouse, 1999).
Nevertheless, as organisation strive for continuous improvement on KM, so does
the competitors in sustaining KM practices. These practices become more
sophisticated and far beyond the reach and must be originated from the historic
roots of Knowledge-based perspective (Wiig, 2000). To discover the opportunity
ahead, researchers need to pay attention to the power of past of KM.
to Wiig (2000) managing knowledge aspects have been complicated and
unsystematic until now. However, in the 13th century, it took into
account the methodical and philistine of KM perspective (Wiig, 2000). Many
researchers pinpointed the current focus on knowledge in KM field is leaning
towards commercial effectiveness. Although there is emergence of effectual
behaviour to assist competitive excellence but numerous factors must be comprehended
as well (Boulding, 1966; Cronin, 1986).
and Leidner (2001) highlight, the prospect of knowledge on the services
rendered by valuable assets relies on the integration of both and know-how the
knowledge. This is being applied in the organisation. However,
knowledge-related resources are hard to comprehend and socially abstruse. The
knowledge is implanted in the firm and can be carried out through multiple
sections include the culture, identity, daily routines, systems as well as the
individual employees (Grant, 1996a, 1996b; Nelson & Winter 1982; Spender,
the organisation able to apply these knowledges and consider them as assets,
they may able to produce long-term sustainable competitive advantage. But to
achieve these, the information technology plays important role in effectuating
it. In order to do so, notable researchers especially in IT literature often
seek the enquiry of understanding the knowledge by differentiating knowledge,
information and data (Alavi & Leidner, 2001). Fahey and Prusak (1998) described
that if knowledge is not different from data or information then there are nothing
formidable about knowledge management.
general perspective, data is treated as raw number and facts, while information
is treated as processed data and knowledge is genuine information (Dretske,
1981; Machlup, 2014; Vance, 1997). Yet, knowledge is information owned by
individuals. It is treated as personalised information which may or may not be
correspondent to facts, rules, procedures, concepts, scope and judgements. The
radical appearance of knowledge may similar to other forms of IS. It is often
geared towards individuals able to assign meaning to information and learn the
knowledge in information or data (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).
mind concentrate on this perspective knowledge, it enables individuals (users)
to broaden their knowledge and apply them to organisational needs (Alavi &
Leidner, 2001). In accordance to knowledge, KM is suggested to be focus on
strategic advancement and creating the intellectual capital. By applying
various concept of knowledge, each view can be assumed as different ways in
handling knowledge and other dissimilar perspective of role when assisting the
KM (Alavi & Leidner, 2001).
3.1 The roots
of Knowledge Management
schools and universities aim to provide support lesson required for leading
minority in KM. The knowledge that they acquire is coming from philosophical
thinking whereas others obtained from particular expertise of environment.
Meanwhile, the rest absorbed from learning through educators and business
leaders’ reforms (Wiig, 2000).
recent intellectual roots of KM are taken from explanation of economic driving
forces in “Knowledge era” and step taken by 20th century result to
enhance capabilities (Kelly, 1996; Romer, 1989).
(2000), claimed that the roots of KM can be further taken from Historical efforts and 20th century results to enhance
effectiveness as explained below: –
To infuse the character
and nature of knowledge and the sanctions of individuals “to think for
To comprehend the
important role of knowledge in human cognitive.
and social sciences
To recognise the
important of knowledge in society.
To understand the work
activities and its organisation.
Century Results to Enhance Effectiveness
Also known as
Rationalisation of Work
Includes Total Quality
Management (TQM) and Management of Sciences to refine effectiveness.
Cognitive Sciences, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Learning Organisation
To improve quickly than
competition thus provide basic for the people to be more effective.
3.2 Driving Forces Influencing
driven forces behind KM can be explained by the evolution of several factors.
KM is essential for driven forces such as competition, market place demands,
new operating and management practices. This may also include the availability
of KM approaches and information technology (Wiig, 2000). The driven forces
that influence KM is categorised into two:
the external driving forces and the internal
to remain competitive most organisations need to be nimble and operate in the
fast pace of environment that keeps on changing. Their growth and success often
subjected to the ability for them able to use external forces wisely. Wiig
(2000) stated external factors such as
globalisation, sophisticated customers and competitors should be considered
if organisations want to be nimble in the fast growth environments.
the increase amount of business going global, the international commerce also
has increasing recently. Business tends to compete with one another to increase
their volume of sales by selling the products or services at low cost. The products
that once created within the local country are now may able to be assembling
across multiple sources in worldwide at low cost (Wiig, 2000). Take into
example, the Smartphone that we use daily, certain parts are made from
different countries even though the brand itself is widely from known countries
such as USA or Korea.
limited resources in developed countries can know be found in developing
countries. Although the capabilities of the production and services can be find
in advanced countries but with managing the knowledge and know how to obtain
the development, they act as cut-throat competition to ensure the survival and
the effectiveness in term of operations, marketing and development of products
and services (Wiig, 2000).
companies want to thrive and grow, they need to listen on customer demands. One
of the reasons for the failure of Toys R Us is that the company did not listen
to their customers. These days customers prefer for better features, new
requirements, high quality of products and reasonable prices and quick feedback
in terms of the products and services (Wiig, 2000). In case of Toys R Us, the
company fail to take into account that customers preference to buy online
rather than coming to brick and mortar
store (Hartung, 2017). By failing to
invest in e-commerce, this had lead the company to lost its customers and thus
cause them to go bankrupt (Lutz, 2017).
the reminder for continuous improvement for every organisation is competitors.
Without competitors the organisation may not constantly try to innovate
themselves in producing better products, services and practices. The
organisation may need to implement discontinues
break-throughs by using new technologies and knowledge practices to ensure
they able to keep the requirement in building more competitive expertise (Wiig,
good example would be Apple versus Samsung. In order to compete in becoming
world number one brand in Smartphone industry they simultaneously keep on
improving their technologies and use the knowledge to build better product and
services specifically for their customers. Other internal factors named
sophisticated suppliers may need to be considered as well for the impellent
cause towards KM.
than visible factors shown by the organisation, it is important also to look
through the internal driving forces. In organisation the creation of numerous
processes and activities, have provided favourable circumstances for managing
knowledge in a better way. While in some case it might be treated the opposite
way. The exemplary of significant changes may include:
in Organisation effectiveness
general, organisation effectiveness is restricted by the flows of work within
the organisation, information access and others. The barrier itself has been
reduced by continuous improvement, the investment in technology such as IT, IC
and logistics. Even the personnel work and tasks have been assigned properly
and information is being enhanced with better accuracy, complete and timely for
decision making (Wiig, 2000). Instead of focusing in efficient and daily
routine the current demand focus on more effectiveness and intelligent
behaviour possess by the individual within the organisation. The bottlenecks
(barrier) from typical and tangible field to knowledge-related perspective may
require greater understanding and enhancement in expertise (Wiig, 2000).
the usage of KM methods, the advancement in information management and
technology and appliance of AI are made feasible (Wiig, 2000). The evidences
can be shown through collaboration of groupware work, the ability to encode for
knowledge bases, the performance support system (which can be learn through
academic module in certain circumstances) and the advancement of search engines
(Wiig, 2000). A good example for the advancement of search engines would be the
google search engine itself, where specific words and enquiries can be use to
search particular matters.
understand human cognitive capacity
the reason behind the internal forces of KM would be understanding on how
intellectual and mental of people act as the centre of effective organisation (Wiig,
2000). Similar to the subject acquire through human resource management and
organisational behaviour, people plays role for the effective KM in
organisation. By incorporating the understanding of cognitive functions such as
mental models, how the knowledge is being comprehended, they may affect the
decision making and knowledge-based work when strategising to conduct KM (Wiig,
2000). Failure to understand the human cognitive aspects, the organisation may
not able to move on and would continue to repeat the same mistake without
making any progress.
Management in the Future
practitioners perceive that KM has brought new characters into the organization
(Wiig, 2000). KM capability are currently in upturn as managers at all
respective levels within the organization must act upon to become more
intelligent in work and nimble with the demands of advanced technology and the
reduction of workforce. The traditional practices are not suitable in high
technological savvy environment and the ephemeral employment in the recent days
being emphasised before, the KM methods and technologies can support
organization to enhance not only their product quality but examining their
processes and to meet their customer expectations. Imagine KM is regarded as
object or associate with information access, then KM would be assumed as
developing and handling knowledge stocks. If it is viewed as process, then it
may focus on knowledge flow, creation, sharing and distribution of knowledge
process. (Alavi & Leidner, 2001). KM is quite broad and have many different
meaning. It depends on how the users utilise the knowledge for.
2004, it was projected that the private and public sectors in the worldwide
have spent $5 billion to $12 billion on KM services (depend on the nature of
market for study group) (Warier, 2003). Even though huge amount of investment
and hour required to build this KM but it help the organization i.e. government
agencies and institutions to understand better on things and helps them to make
a room for improvement and control the cost. These days, organisation realise
that there is numerous amount of information that required being stored.
Without the KM, they would not understand how to include the data into context
and what are the factors and methods that can be employed to bring more benefit
towards the organization. By using KM systems, organization may able to
consolidate their assets, understand how to do their internal operations in
better way and constituent bases (Warier, 2003).
KM it markets the development and application of method that can be considered
as enrichment for the personnel and attainment of organizational goal. In such
ascertain the organisation to have long term survival or better delivery
quality services on the continuous future (Wiig, 2000).
To conclude KM
will keep on evolving and drawn upon assistance from many areas such as theoretical,
practices and application. Organisations become more aware on how knowledge
play useful role in their organisation. They even pay more attention on their
competitor and try to enhance their competitive power on their IC. The root
behinds the KM approach can be further seen through the internal and external
forces that lead to effectual in KM. Yet, organisation who pursue the KM
without fully understanding the effect and benefit of developing them may
create danger instead of value within the organisation.
As being mentioned before, by enhancing KM, an
organisation may able to survive and thrive for long-term. Furthermore, the KM
effort may serve major benefits towards the organisation. Other than supporting
the strategy of KM, it help the individuals to set up priority setting and
minimise costs and risks associate with the process, products and services
incurs. Nevertheless, bear in mind that not all KM can be use in every
organisation. To become more effective, most organisations should create
approaches that may help the personal to acquire better understanding on the
knowledge. Thus help the implementation, operating and process flow of work and
tasks to become more smoothly. On contrary, when mentioning about the roots of
KM, the explanation is not simply from the past only. The roots behind the reason
the KM is essential for the organisation must be considered as well.