1. The digital revolution is the continuousprogression of social, political, and economic change caused by variations ofdigital technologies such as microchips, computers, and the Internet (The Digital Revolution, 2017),2. Digital data is represented in numbers usingones and zeros (The Digital Revolution, 2017).
3. Some advantages of digital data representationare that numerous copies can be made of the material without losing any data,and now the images don’t come out blurry. Information is also transferred fastand it can now be stored and maintained easily. A bigger advantage though isthat it’s become more affordable (The Digital Revolution, 2017). 4.
Data processing is a continuous cycle of whendata inserted into a computer is processed and then output (The Digital Revolution, 2017). 5. The stages of the digital revolution are DataProcessing, Personal Computing, Network Computing, and Cloud Computing.
In thephase one, Data Processing, data is inserted into the computer, then it’sprocessed, and finally it is output. In the second phase, Personal Computing,computers were used to increase productivity. Instead of the computers beingconnected to a network they were self-contained unites that would permitsomeone to only use the software that was installed unto the computer. Peoplehad desktops at home instead of just corporates. Now the third phase, computerswere finally networked, and the internet became available to the public. Peoplewere now able to access the internet without having to use dial-up modems. Users could now communicate online in chatrooms, play games with multiple people, and even download music.
Desktopcomputers were slowly becoming replaced with laptops and although users couldaccess the internet, all the applications, data, and media still stayed on thelocal hard disk. The last phase was Cloud computing, which providedinformation, applications, communication, and storage over the internet. Beforecloud computing all the software was run locally but now users could just runtheir word applications, emails, and all their other activities online.Everything could be stored on the cloud, meaning that everything was accessibleon all their other digital devices that was connected to the internet (The Digital Revolution, 2017).
6. Convergence is when multiple technologies withdifferent functions come together to produce a product. Convergence helpedcreate technologies where the owners were able to gain access to the sameservices or applications that they had on their desktop computers. Users couldnow access the internet, software, music, etc. on their mobile devices and withthe help of cloud computing a wide spectrum of digital services were availableon these mobile devices (The Digital Revolution,2017). 7. In both centralized and cloud computing theapplications and data are now stored somewhere else besides in just the localdevices.
Data would be entered and then processed on the central computer andafter that the data could be viewed on other devices (The Digital Revolution, 2017). 8. Internet of Things, IoT, is appliances that havechips or sensors in them that enables the devices to communicate with oneanother. Some examples of IoT devices that encounter every day are my car, therefrigerator, lights, and my Fitbit Flex (TheDigital Revolution, 2017). 9. The IPOS model is a cycle where a computeraccepts input, processes the data, stores the data, and then produces theoutput. In the input stage whatever a user types or submits is accepted by thecomputer and then the computer manipulates the data in the process stage,stores it in the hard drive or its memory, and then produces the results in theoutput stage (Digital Devices: Section A Device Basics, 2017).
10. The three different types of software areapplication software, system software, and development tools. The applicationsoftware is a set of computer programs that help the user complete the task inhand whereas with the system software’s main purpose to help the computerprograms or operating system carry out the necessary operatingresponsibilities. Finally, development tools are used to create other softwaresuch as programming and scripting languages (Digital Devices: Section A Device Basics, 2017).11. A simple circuit is made up of electricalpathways, transistors, and resistors.
As shown in the picture below the circlesrepresent the electronic pathway, the transistor is represented by the circles,and the rectangles are used to represent the resistor (Digital Devices: Section A Device Basics, 2017). 12. An integrated circuit is a group of tinyelectronic circuits fixed onto a small piece of semiconducting material. Anintegrated circuit is made up of resistors and transistors (Digital Devices: Section A Device Basics, 2017).13. A component system is made up of multiplestandalone parts, such as a display device, a camera, speaker and system unit.
Some other features of a component system are the display on/off button, harddisk drive, the system board, CD/DVD drive, mouse, keyboard, and the computeron/off button. On the other hand, a clamshell device has a keyboard as thebased and a screen on the cover. The features for that system are the displayscreen, camera, microphone, system unit, keyboard, touchpad, speakers, on/offbutton, CD/DVD button, the hard disk drive, battery, and system board (Digital Devices: Section A Device Basics, 2017). 14. It is important to understand the history of acomputer because the history teaches us how technology was created and itsevolution. Also for us to continuous update our current technologies we need toknow the trial and errors of the past. It’s also important to know if our newtechnology is compatible with the ones in the past that way it’s easy toupgrade computers (Computer Systems Architecture: 1.
3 Development of Computers, 2017). Some examples ofmechanical computers are the Jacquard loom, punched card, the difference engine,and the analytical engine. The Jacquard loom was designed to weave patterns,that used to be done by skilled workers, automatically. The punched cards wereused to control the patterns in the textiles; a specific pattern of holes wouldrepresent a unique set of operations. The difference engine was designed byCharles Babbage to automatically evaluate polynomials that were used tocalculate math tables. Charles Babbage never actually finished the differenceengine so Per Georg Scheutz finished it for him. Later, Babbage partially builtthe analytical engine which had arithmetic processing unit meant to input,output data, and store the data and programs that were collected from thepunched cards (Computer Systems Architecture: 1.3.
1 Mechanical Computers, 2017). Some examples ofelectromechanical computers are telephone switching, the typewriter, and theHollerith census tabulator. Telephone switching used relays, like binarydigital logic switching, to build electromechanical computers.
The Hollerithcensus tabulator was a punch card reader (Computer Systems Architecture 1.3.2 Electromechanical Computers, 2017). Some examples ofearly electronic computers are the ENIAC, the Manchester Baby, and thetransistor.
The ENIAC was a vacuum tube computer that could operate 10-digitdecimal numbers. The ENIAC however only worked on operations that were alreadyprogrammed into its circuits. The Manchester Baby was the world’s firstoperational stored-program computer, meaning that its memory containsinstructions and data. The transistor was then created at AT Bell Labs in1948 (Computer Systems Architecture: 1.3.3 Early Electronic Computers, 2017).
15. The capacitor memory was invented by John V.Atanasoff. The invention could hold a charge and it was used to store a 1 or 0.As the capacitors were passed under a row of contacts the stored values wouldbe read.
This later made the mercury ultrasonic delay line easier to managebecause as the data moved down a tube filled with mercury it was stored as a sequenceof ultrasonic pulses and when those pulses went from one end to the other theywere enlarged and recirculated. The cathode ray tube memory was invented byFrederick Williams and used to store data on its face by shining a point withan electron beam to store charge. The first tube that Frederick Williamsinvented could only store 1,024 bits but later the upgrade could store 2,048bits. In 1949, Forester invented the ferrite core memory for the Whirlwind computer.The ferrite core was a small ring of magnetic material that could be magnetizedclockwise or counterclockwise. Up until the 1970s the ferrite core was themainstream memory for mainframes.
In the 1970s the Semiconductor dynamic memorywas created to replace the core store of the ferrite core and has become thestandard means of data storage used today. In current times a small module ofDRAM provides 8 GB of storage and that’s a huge improvement from the 1.024 bitsthat was provided by Frederick Williams cathode ray tube (Computer Systems Architecture: 1.3.6 The March of Memory Technology, 2017).
16. Multimedia computers are computers that canprocess and store audio and video data (Computer Systems Architecture: 1.3.8 Multimedia Computers, 2017). Some advantages ofmultimedia computers are it’s user friendly, multi-sensory, interactive,flexible, and can be used for a variety of audiences.
The disadvantages on theother hand are it’s too unrealistic, large files such as video and audio maytake too long to load unto a user’s presentation. It also takes time to compilethe file and it may contain too much information at once (Advantages andDisadvantages of Multimedia Computer Science Essay, 2015).