???????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????

?????????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ???? ?? ?????? ????????, ???? ??? ????????????????????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ( Berger, 2013a, ?. 19). ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????, ???????? ??????? ??????? ( Berger,2013b, ?. 20).???????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????????, ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????????????,?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ( Berger, 2013, ?. 20).??????,?????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????, ???? ??? ???,??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????, ???? ??? ? ???? ??? ?????????, ? ???????????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????, ???? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???????????????? ( Berger, 2013e, ?.

24). ?????????, ???????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ? «??????????????», ? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????, ??? ???? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ,???? ??? ??????, ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????????? , ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ,???? ????????? ?? ??????????? ( Berger,2013f, ?. 25).???????????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ????  ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????????? ??? ?????????????? , ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ( Berger, 2013g,?. 25). ??? ???? ??? ??? ? ? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????????????? ????????????? ???, ?? ??????? ??? ?????????. ??????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????, ???? ??? ??? ?????? ????????????????????, ??????? ??? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????, ?? ????? ????????????? ???????? 1,2 – 1,5 ???????????? ??????????? ( Berger, 2013h, ?.

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21).  ???????, ? ????? ???? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????, ???????????????? ????????????, ???? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ??????????????, ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????,????? ??? ?? ?????, ???? ? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ( Berger, 2013i, ?. 21). ?????????,?????? ?? ????????????  ??? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ???? ????, ???, ?????, ???????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????, ????, ??? ???????????????? ???? ?????????????,???????????????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????, ????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ????? ??? ?????, ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? , ???? ????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ( Berger,2013j, ?. 22).?????,??? ???? ????????? ??????, ??? ????????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????????????, ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ??? ???????????????????? ??? ???????? ??????, ? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??  ???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????,??? ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ( Berger, 2013k, ?.

22)??????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????????????, ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????????????????, ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????. H ??????? ???????????????????? ??? ?? ?????   ??? ???????? ?? ????????????????? ??????, ? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ????????????? ?? ???????????  ???????, ????? ???? ?? ??????? ? ??????????????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????, ????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???????, ????????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ( ???????  ????????? ??????,1978?, ?. 35 ; Morrisson,2007a, ?. 269).

?????????????, ???? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????????????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ????, ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???,??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????????, ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????????, ????? ??????? ???? , ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???? ????????????? ( ???????  ????????? ??????,1978?, ?. 35; Berger,2013, ?. 26 ; ?orrisson,2007b, ?. 269; Koder, 2004, ?. 158). ? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????????????? ??? ???? ????, ????? ? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????, ???? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????, ???? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????, ????? ????? ??? 324, ????? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?????? ( ???????????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 35).

???????, ??? ??????? ??? ?????, ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????????? ?????? ???????? ??? 324 , ?? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????, ???? « ubique victor ( ???????? ???????) », «rector totius urbae ( ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????) », ???????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ???????? ( ??????? ????????? ??????, 1978?,?. 35). ?? ???? ??? ?????, ???? ??? ????? ???, ??????? ????? , ??? ????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????????????? ( ??????? ????????? ??????, 1978, ?. 35). ??????,???????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????,?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????, ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ???????, ?? ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ?????????, ?? ???????? ????? ????????????, ???? ??? ?? ???? ???, ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ????? ?????? , ? ?????, ???? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ?? ???????, ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? , ?????????? , ?? ?????????? ???????????  ( ?orrisson, 2007a, ?. 272 ; www.ehw.gr, ???????, 2008 ·??????? ????????? ??????, 1978, ?.

39 ).?????,???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ???? ??? ??????????????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? , ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????????????, ??????????????  ?????? ????? ?? ????????????????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????, ?????????? ???? ?? ????, ?????????? 80.000 ?????? ??????????, ????? ??? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? (Morrisson, 2007b, ?. 270, 273 ; Koder, 2004, ?.

162). ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ??????, ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????, ????? ??? ??????????????????.  ? ????????????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????     ??? ?????????????????????????, ? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ( ??????? ??? ????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 35).H ????????????????????????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???? 11 ???????? 330 ?.?, ?? ?????????????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????, ?? ??? ????????? ?????, ??? ???? ??????, ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? 5?? ????? ( ??????? ???????????????, 1978?, ?. 39).

?????????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????, ??? ?????? ?????, ???? ?? ???? ????? ???????????? «???????» ??? ??? «???????????»,???? ??? ????, ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?? 332 ?.? ??? ??? ?????????? (??? ????) ?? ius italicum, ???????????? ??????????????????????? ????? ??????? ( ??????? ????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 40).??????? ?? ????, ??????????? ???, ???? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? 359, ?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????, ???? ??? ??? ????, ??? ???????????? ?? ??? ????? praefectisUrbis Constantinopolitae( www.ehw.gr, ??????????, 2008; Berger, 2013, ?. 39). ???????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????????????????? ? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ?????, ???? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??? 381 ( Morrisson, 2007, ?.

275).?????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????,???? ? ??????? ??? ? ???????, ?? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???,??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ( ??????? ????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 38). ?????????, ??????????? ??? ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????????, ???,??? ??????? ??????, ?? ????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ??? ???? ??????(??????? ????????? ??????, 1978?, ?.

38).?????,? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???? ??????????,??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???????????, ??? ??????????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????? , ???? ??? ??? ????????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ( Morrisson,2007a, ?. 274 – 275 ; www.ehw.gr, ??????????, 2008; ?oder, 2004, ?. 159).

?????,??????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????, ????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????, ???? ? ????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ??? ?????????,  ? «??????????????», ? ???? ????? ( Morrisson,2007b, ?. 276 – 277). ?????????????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ???????, ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????. ? ????????? ???? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????,  ????, ?? ????????????? ??? ???, ??? ??????,???? ? ??????????? ???? ???? ?????????, ??? ?????????????, ???? ??????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ???? ??????????????????????, ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????????? ??? ???????????????????.

 ?????????????????????????????? – Fowden,«? ????? ????» ( 324 – 395), ???: ??????? ??????? ( ????.),  ?????????? ????????? ?????? : ?????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????? ??? 324 –642 , ???. ??, ???. ???????? ??????, ????? 1978, ?. 35, 39, 40, 38.

Albrecht Berger, ????????????????. ???????, ??????????, ????????, ???. ?????????????????, ???. ????????, ????? 2013, ?. 19, 20, 24, 25, 21, 21, 22, 22, 26,39.Johannes Koder, ?? ???????? ?? ?????.

???????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????????????? ??? ????????? ?????, ???. ????????? ?????????????, ???. ??????,??????????? 2004, ?. 158, 159, 162.?????? ??????????,«????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????????», ???: ?????????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????????, 2008 ( http://www.

ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=12476)????????? ???????,«?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????????», ???: ?????????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????????, 2008, ( http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=12309)Cesile Morrisson, ? ?????????? ??????, ? ????????? ??????? ????????????, ???.

????????? ?????????, ???. ??, ???. ?????, ????? 2007, ?. 269, 272, 270, 273,275, 274 – 275, 276 – 277.