???????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????

????????

???
??? ??? ?????????????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ???? ???????
??? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ???? ?? ?????? ????????, ???? ??? ??????????
??????????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ( Berger, 2013a, ?. 19). ? ?????? ?????
??? ????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??????, ??
?????? ??????? ??????? ( Berger,
2013b, ?. 20).

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?
??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ?? ?????????? ?? ???????
? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????????, ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????
??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????????????,
?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ( Berger, 2013, ?. 20).

??????,
?????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????, ???? ??? ???,
??? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????, ???? ??? ? ???? ??? ?????????, ? ?????
??????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????, ???? ? ??????? ???????????? ???
???????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???????????????? ( Berger, 2013e, ?. 24). ?????????, ??
?????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ? «??????
????????», ? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????, ??? ???? ???
????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ,
???? ??? ??????, ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????????? , ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ,
???? ????????? ?? ??????????? ( Berger,
2013f, ?. 25).

???????
????? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ????  ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????????? ??? ???
??????????? , ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ( Berger, 2013g,
?. 25). ??? ???? ??? ??? ? ? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???
???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????????????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????????????? ???
?????????? ???, ?? ??????? ??? ?????????.

 

?
?????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????

 ?? ?????? ????????, ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???
?????????????????, ??????? ??? ???????? ??????, ? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????
?????, ?? ????? ????????????? ???????? 1,2 – 1,5 ???????????? ??????????? ( Berger, 2013h, ?. 21).

  ?
??????, ? ????? ???? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???? ????
?????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????, ??
?????????????? ????????????, ???? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????, ??? ?????? ???????
???????, ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????,
????? ??? ?? ?????, ???? ? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ( Berger, 2013i, ?. 21). ?????????,
?????? ?? ????????????  ??? ?????? ???
??????????? ??????????? ???? ???? ????, ???, ?????, ???????????? ???? ???
??????? ??????? ???? ????, ????, ??? ???????????????? ???? ?????????????,
???????????????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???????????? ???????, ????? ??? ???????????
??? ?? ????? ??? ?????, ???????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? , ???? ????? ???
????????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ( Berger,
2013j, ?. 22).

?????,
??? ???? ????????? ??????, ??? ????????????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????
?????????, ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????????????
??? ??? ???????? ??????, ? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??  ???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????,
??? ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ( Berger, 2013k, ?. 22)

???
???? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????????????, ??? ??????? ???? ???????? ???
?? ???? ?? ????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???
?????????????????, ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????.

 

H ??????? ???
????????????????? ??? ?? ?????   ??? ???????? ?? ?????

??
?????????? ??????, ? ???? ??????? ??? 
???????? ???? ??? ????????????? ?? ???????????  ???????, ????? ???? ?? ??????? ? ???????
???????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?????, ????? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ???
?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ???????, ????????????? ??? ????? ????
???????? ( ???????  ????????? ??????,
1978?, ?. 35 ; Morrisson,
2007a, ?. 269).

?
????????????, ???? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??????????
???, ?????????? ??? ??????? ????, ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???,
??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????????, ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????????, ??
??? ??????? ???? , ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???? ???
?????????? ( ???????  ????????? ??????,
1978?, ?. 35; Berger,
2013, ?. 26 ; ?orrisson,
2007b, ?. 269; Koder, 2004, ?. 158). ? ?????
??????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????????????? ??? ???? ????, ????? ? ???? ???? ?????
??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????
??? ???????, ???? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????, ???? ??????
???? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????, 
????? ????? ??? 324, ????? ?????????????? ??? ???? ?????? ( ???????
????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 35).

??
?????, ??? ??????? ??? ?????, ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????????? ????
?? ???????? ??? 324 , ?? ??? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????, ??? ?? ??????
??? ???????? ??? ??????, ???? « ubique victor ( ???????? ???????) », «
rector totius urbae ( ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????) », ???????????? ????
?????????? ??? ???????????????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????
???????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ???????? ( ??????? ????????? ??????, 1978?,
?. 35). ?? ???? ??? ?????, ???? ??? ????? ???, ??????? ????? , ??? ?
???????????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????
????????? ( ??????? ????????? ??????, 1978, ?. 35).

??????,
???????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????????,
?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????, ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????????
?? ???????, ?? ????????, ?? ?????? ??? ?????????, ?? ???????? ????? ???
?????????, ???? ??? ?? ???? ???, ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????
????? ?? ????? ?????? , ? ?????, ???? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ???
???????? ??????, ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ?? ???
????, ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??
??? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? , ?????????? , ?? ?????????? ??
?????????  ( ?orrisson, 2007a, ?. 272 ; www.ehw.gr, ???????, 2008 ·
??????? ????????? ??????, 1978, ?. 39 ).

?????,
???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????????? ???? ??? ??????????????
????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? , ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???
?????????, ???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????????????, ???
???????????  ?????? ????? ?? ?????
???????????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????, ???
??????? ???? ?? ????, ?????????? 80.000 ?????? ??????????, ????? ??? ???? ???
??????????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??????????, ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? (
Morrisson, 2007b, ?. 270, 273 ; Koder, 2004, ?. 162).

???
???? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ??????, ??? ???
?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????, ????? ??? ??????????
????????.

 

 ? ????????????? ??? ????????????????? ??
????????? ?????     ??? ?????????

????
????????????, ? ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??
???????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????? ??
???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ( ??????? ??? ????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 35).

H ????????????????
????????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???? 11 ?????
??? 330 ?.?, ?? ?????????????? ????????, 
??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????, ??? ????
?????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????, ?? ??? ????????? ?????, ??? ???? ??????, ??
??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? 5?? ????? ( ??????? ?????????
??????, 1978?, ?. 39). ?????????, ?????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????????, ??? ???
??? ?????, ???? ?? ???? ????? ???????????? «???????» ??? ??? «???????????»,
???? ??? ????, ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?? 332 ?.? ??? ??? ?????????? (
??? ????) ?? ius italicum, ???????????? ??????????
????????????? ????? ??????? ( ??????? ????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 40).

???
???? ?? ????, ??????????? ???, ???? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? 359, ?
????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????, ???? ??? ??? ????, ??? ?????
??????? ?? ??? ????? praefectis
Urbis Constantinopolitae
( www.ehw.gr, ??????????, 2008
; Berger, 2013, ?. 39). ???
????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????????
??? ? ??????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ?????, ???? ????????????? ???
??? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??? 381 ( Morrisson, 2007, ?. 275).

??
???????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ???
??????? ??? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????,
???? ? ??????? ??? ? ???????, ?? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???,
??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ???
???????? ??????? ( ??????? ????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 38). ?????????, ??
????????? ??? ? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????????, ???,
??? ??????? ??????, ?? ????? ???????? ???? ????????????? ??? ???? ??????
(??????? ????????? ??????, 1978?, ?. 38).

?????,
? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???? ??????????,
??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ???????????
???? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?????? 
????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ???????????, ??? ???
???????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????, ??????
??? ??????????? ??????? , ???? ??? ??? ????????????, ??????????? ??? ??????
???? ??? ??????????? ( Morrisson,
2007a, ?. 274 – 275 ; www.ehw.gr, ??????????, 2008
; ?oder, 2004, ?. 159).

?????,
??????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????, ????? ??? ??
?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????, ???? ? ????? ??? ?????????, ?
???????? ??? ?????????,  ? «??????
????????», ? ???? ????? ( Morrisson,
2007b, ?. 276 – 277).

 

????????????

????
?? ??????????, ??? ?????????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ???????, ?? ???
?????? ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ???
?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????. ? ????????? ???? ????????
?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????,  ????, ?? ????????????? ??? ???, ??? ??????,
???? ? ??????????? ???? ???? ?????????, ??? ?????????????, ???? ???
???????????? ????????? ??? ????????????, ? ????? ??????? ???? ???????????
???????????, ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????????? ??? ???????????
????????.

 

????????????

????????
?????????? – Fowden,
«? ????? ????» ( 324 – 395), ???: ??????? ??????? ( ????.),  ???????
??? ????????? ?????? : ?????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ?????? ??? 324 –
642 , ???. ??, ???. ???????? ??????, ????? 1978, ?. 35, 39, 40, 38.

Albrecht Berger, ????????????????. ???????, ??????????, ????????, ???. ???????
??????????, ???. ????????, ????? 2013, ?. 19, 20, 24, 25, 21, 21, 22, 22, 26,
39.

Johannes Koder, ?? ???????? ?? ?????. ???????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????
????????? ??? ????????? ?????, ???. ????????? ?????????????, ???. ??????,
??????????? 2004, ?. 158, 159, 162.

?????? ??????????,
«????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????????????», ???: ?????????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????????, 2008 ( http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=12476)

????????? ???????,
«?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????????», ???: ?????????????? ???????? ??????????, ????????????????, 2008, ( http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=12309)

Cesile Morrisson, ? ?????????? ??????, ? ????????? ??????? ????????????, ???.
????????? ?????????, ???. ??, ???. ?????, ????? 2007, ?. 269, 272, 270, 273,
275, 274 – 275, 276 – 277.

x

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