of public health policies such as tobacco control, food labeling, and
vaccinations sometimes use arguments that are not specific to health. What are
some of these arguments described in the assigned readings?

Ever since the beginning of public health policies, there have been individuals for and
against them. In the earlier times policies faced resistance due to them being politically
incorrect, as with the HIV/AIDS epidemic and now the argument is based on free
will, autonomy (Koplan & McPheeters, 2004). In an article published by Dan
E. Beauchamp, he stated that one of the core opinions against successful
implementation of public health policies was that the lifestyle and individual choose to lead is his or her problems (Beauchamp,
1980). The opponents for tobacco control, individuals and the tobacco industry
alike, based their arguments on the fact that they believed smokers had a right
to choose their lifestyle and that it was inappropriate
for the government to intervene in the economy (Cohen et al., 2000). Another
study proved that the tobacco industry used “core values” of freedom, fairness,
free enterprise, and autonomy to create consistent and sustained central
messages and themes (Menashe & Siegel, 1998). Similar arguments are seen with opponents to food labeling and
vaccinations. Although vaccination is mandatory nationwide at school entry,
opponents continue to voice their right to decision making with regards to the
upbringing of their children and the adverse effects of many vaccines available
(Hendrix, Sturm, Zimet & Meslin, 2016).  As with food labeling, the arguments of
misinterpretation and mass confusion take on the lead, where the opposition
believes over-labeling products will confuse the consumers and instill fear
regarding Genetically Modified Foods.

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are some effective strategies public
health proponents can employ to overcome non-health related or ideological

From these past examples we have discerned that science, public
health and policies go hand in hand, where science is needed to inform public
health practices and this, in turn, is used to develop policies (Koplan &
McPheeters, 2004). Local health departments should engage diverse communities in
developing a broad spectrum of solutions to problems, such as chronic diseases,
health disparities, and other complex community health issues. Local health
departments must continue to test, refine and share their work and involve the
communities in tackling health issues (Frieden, 2014). 


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