A.

    Greek and Roman LegacyMesopotamian andEgyptian physicians used natural remedies, physical therapy, and faith healing.Hippocrates “Father of Medicine”, established an ethical code named theHippocratic Oath. He urged physicians to seek natural causes for diseases.

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Aristotle believed that supernatural causes (theologi) or natural ones(physici or physiologi) caused both diseases and natural events.Claudius Galen wrote the most significant medical textbookof the ancient era, and dissected animals. He warned and recommended others totrust their own observations. Greek and Romanscholars gave medicine a scientific basis. B.    Birth of ModernMedicineMedical illustrationsdidn’t depict the body realistically. Maimonides served from the age of 24 as physician to the court of thesultan, Saladin. Wrote 10 influential medical books and numerous treatises onspecific diseases.

Avicenna “Galen of Islam”, combined Galen and Aristotle’s discoverieswith his original ones. His book “The Canon of Medicine” was the leadingauthority in European medical schools for over 500 years. Andreas Vesalius dissected human bodies and was the first topublish accurate illustrations and atlas anatomy. William Harvey studied blood circulation and embryology. Michael Servetus realized that blood must circulatecontinuously around the body.

Robert Hooke designed the compound microscope and publishedfirst comprehensive book of microscopy. Antony van Leeuwenhoek invented a simple microscope with greatermagnification than Hooke’s.Matthias Schleiden, botanist, and Theodor Schwann, zoologist, gathered that organisms were composedof cells. o   Unity of form and function- they complement each other o   Cell theory- all structure and function derive from the activity of cells. Physicians practicedexpelling imaginary toxins and inducing vomiting, sweating, or diarrhea; lackof hygiene was a common sight during operations