9th a place at New York University’s School

9th Grade Honors Biology7 December 2017Oswald AveryDiscovering that a gene is made from DNA, Oswald Avery was the leader of the teamthat made the shocking discovery that DNA carries the chemical code of life.Mr. Oswald Theodore Avery was born on October 28, 1877 in Halifax, Nova Scotia,Canada and was the second of three sons to a pair of British parents. Early on in his life Averyand his family moved to New York City, USA where he was raised in the lower East Side. In histeenage years Avery’s family image changed with the passing of his father and his brother,Ernest. 1893 began Avery’s attendance at Colgate College and later Colgate University. ThereAvery showed his excellence and was a good student focusing his studies in humanities andleading the college band. He graduated Colgate with a bachelor’s degree before changing hiscareer pathway entirely and enrolling at Columbia University’s College of Physicians andSurgeons to study medicine.His career in DNA started when he was inspired by the work of a British scientist,Frederick Griffith. Mr Griffith created something outstanding in his studies. He made one strainof bacteria change into another. Although Griffith’s work fascinated Avery, especially as itrelated to his own work, he was skeptical of its accuracy. Until, a fellow worker, Martin Dawson,replicated Griffith’s discoveries. Dawson continued his work with Avery and made notabledevelopments causing him to get a new job. In his place a new scientist started working withGauld 2Avery, James Alloway. They began work on the “transforming principle” and came up with manytheories but soon James also moved on to another workplace.Avery’s research finally started to pick up speed when he was joined by a uniqueresearcher in 1935. Colin MacLeod gave the project a new moving force and a reliability in thelab space and soon they put all other tasks on hold to focus purely on the “transforming particle”and found that the transformation was completely lipid and protein free by the year 1941.MacLeod was then offered a place at New York University’s School of Medicine but came backat times as the project started wrapping up.The last notable partner who joined in 1941 on the particle project was Maclyn McCarty,a postdoctor who had been recommended to work with Avery. They made rapid progress togetherand isolated the substance they needed from the rest of the cell. Because of this they thendetermined that the substance had to be deoxyribonucleic acid, this had never been found before.Avery, MacLeod and McCarty’s work had finally paid off with the finding of DNA andthey submitted their project to be published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine and it wascalled the Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment. It included the fact that DNA is genetic materialand contains a high molecular weight making it a large molecule. The experiment was never aNobel Prize winner but was nevertheless a groundbreaking finding in the world of science.In terms of Oswald Avery the inclusion of other scientists pushed the project further at amore accelerated speed than it would have been working alone, but could cause problems such aswho gets the credit for the work. Personally I feel that having a partner in your work can helpyou and give you a critique for your tasks. Competition between scientists may acceleratescientific discoveries as the pressure to be the first discoverer of something in science is3incredibly sought out by many and given lots of attention and rewards. On the other hand it manyslow progress down as the pressure may be too much for some to handle and maybe even forcethem to give up on the experiment entirely.Without the discoveries and work Avery, MacLeod and McCarty did we would knowl


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