A DNA that has been cut out froman organism and put into a vector it is known as recombinant DNA.DNA cloning is the beginning of geneticengineering for biotechnology research as it need a large amount of DNA.
Tomake copies of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or cloning DNA in cell inneeded. To get several copies of DNA it most be isolated or cut into pieces,then past into a DNA vector that can copy itself. A piece of DNA is cut fromits organism with a restriction enzyme (is used to cut small fragment of DNA,the cuts are made at specific nucleotide sequence and they recognise each DNAsequence that has been cut) (Hub, 2018). The piece of DNAgoes into a vector and the end of the DNA is attached to a vector DNA with aligation (ligase is used to attach two compatible pieces of DNA) (Hub,2018). the same vector is inserted into a cell (bacteria or yeast)with the transformation process which will make the cell to copy the vector DNAwith its own DNA making new copies of the new DNA. The vector DNA is removedfrom the cell DNA and purified. DNA cloning can be used to findout the function of a specific gene, to find a gene characteristic, how a genesfunction can be affected by a mutation, make a concentration of a protein codedfor the gene, it can also be used to make a clone of an identical gene of anorgan and therapeutic cloning which is for making copies of a cell to treat adisease.
Some species are not able totransform naturally like the majority of the bacteria from an outside source.These species need help by using chemicals, physical or enzyme treatment. Ingenetic engineering, artificial transformation is essential for the geneticalteration sequence in the cells.
One of the methods is to heat shock (quicktemperature change) the cell which is then treated with the DNA and a highconcentration of calcium ions. The calcium ions precipitate the DNA on thesurface of the cell which is then forced into the cell. The other methods areto put the transformed DNA and the bacteria in a metal container, pass a highvoltage electrical current into the metal contain which will temporarily openthe pores or channel in the membrane of the bacteria. The DNA enters quickly,and the channels and pores close again, the DNA is introduced to the recipient (Biolabs,2018).
Artificial transformation Natural transformation is genetically encoded in a bacterium. Abacterium must shift their part to transform DNA, in other words they must beable to capable to take up exogenous DNA (strep.Pneumoniae and B.sub can take on the exogenous DNA as they secret andproduce a small amount of protein that can accumulate in the growth medium).Transformation is a process thatneeds DNA from an outside organism.
Transformation can occur in two differentways which are natural transformationand artificial transformation.