This paper aims to present the Galapagos Islands. an ecological belongings on the list of World Heritage Sites in Danger by the United Nations Educational. Scientific.
and Cultural Organization. Galapagos Islands have alone ecosystems with diverse native and endemic species of vegetations and zoologies. The Charles Darwin Foundation ( CDF ) was set up to turn to protection and preservation concerns of Galapagos Islands.
CDF collaborated with the national and local authoritiess. Galapagos National Park Services. other organisations. voluntaries. and local occupants to travel frontward its authorization.Although there were marks of advancement on the attempts made. Galapagos Islands still face the same challenges that endanger its biodiversity: invasive species. turning but irresponsible local population.
illegal fishing. planetary demands for touristry and marine resources. and conflicting involvements of assorted stakeholders. Doubling the current attempts.
stewardship by all stakeholders and a stable national leading will rush up the procedure. Galapagos Islands: A Natural World Heritage SiteIntroduction and Background This paper aims to present the Galapagos Islands. an ecological belongings on the list of World Heritage in Danger by the United Nations Educational. Scientific.
and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) . Specifically. the paper will depict the diverseness of species.
the ecosystems. adult male made menaces. bing protection and preservation steps. single enterprises. and the possible impact of pretermiting the said World Heritage site.
Galapagos Conservation Trust ( 2001 ) provides the undermentioned historical histories taking to Galapagos’ lettering as a World Heritage Site in Danger: ( 1 ) 1959 – Ecuador declared 97 % of the land country of Galapagos as a National Park. ( 2 ) 1978 – UNESCO inscribed the Galapagos Islands as the first site on the list of World Heritage Sites. ( 3 ) 1986 – Ecuador established the Galapagos Marine Resources Reserve to protect the Waterss around the archipelago. ( 4 ) 1998 – the Particular Law for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Galapagos Province created the Galapagos Marine Reserve.
and ( 5 ) 2001 – UNESCO expanded the heritage site to include the Marine Reserve. In 2007. UNESCO inscribed the Galapagos Islands on the list of World Heritage in Danger ( 2008 ) . Description LocationThe Galapagos Islands. about 1. 000 kilometres off the Pacific seashore of Ecuador.
comprise 14 major islands and more than 120 smaller islets and stones. covering a entire land country of about 8. 000 square kilometres ( Charles Darwin Foundation [ CDF ] . 2008 ) . The volcanic and seismal activities that formed the islands “led to the development of unusual carnal life – such as the land iguana.
the elephantine tortoise and the many types of finch – that inspired Charles Darwin’s theory of development by natural choice following his visit in 1835” ( UNESCO. 2008 ) . Galapagos lies in the Pacific Ocean. where the convergence of three ocean currents provides a ‘melting pot’ for different Marine species. The Galapagos Marine Reserve environing the archipelago covers an country of 138. 000 sq. kilometer.
( CDF. 2008 ) . Land and Marine EcosystemsGalapagos has a combination of land and marine ecosystems.
with distinguishable home grounds and communities ( CDF. 2008 ) . Every indigen and endemic species has successfully adapted and occupied a alone niche in each ecosystem with small competition for nutrient and infinite ; nevertheless. the debut of new species has disrupted the ecosystems ( CDF.
2008 ) . The land ecosystem has four flora zones that determine home grounds. to humor. littoral.
dry. passage. and humid ( CDF. 2008 ) . The littoral zone refers to the coastal periphery of the islands. which shelter four Rhizophora mangle tree species.
The dry zone is a place to many cacti. The passage zone includes a assortment of little trees or bushs like guayabillo and tomato.The humid zone has trees. bush. ferns. orchids. and mosses ( CDF. 2008 ) .
There are 560 native species of flora 180. of which are endemic ( CDF. 2008 ) .
The reptilians and amphibious vehicles include the most noteworthy endemic species—the giant tortoise. sea-going iguana. ashen-colored Marine iguana. lava lizard. geckos ( CDF. 2008 ) . The scope of endemic birds includes the finches. penguin.
Phalacrocorax carbo. and swallow-tailed chump. In add-on. there are more than 60 endemic land snails ( CDF.
2008 ) . Several species of vegetations and zoologies were introduced. some of which are invasive and present a serious menace to the ecosystems. e. g. . rat species eating reptilian eggs. birds transporting diseases ( CDF.
2008 ) .The Marine home ground has a “combination of cold and warm Oceanic currents” . a “wide scope of Marine landscapes” .
and “highly unusual scope of biological communities. of exceeding diversity” ( CDF. 2008 ) . CDF reported more than 2. 900 marine species. of which over 18 % unrecorded merely in Galapagos Islands ( 2008 ) . Coastal animate beings of Galapagos include “sea king of beastss.
fur seals. flightless Phalacrocorax carbos. millstones. three species of dumbbell. two frigate bird species. sea polo-necks. the marine iguana. and penguins” ( CDF.
2008 ) . Healthy populations of the largest Marine animate beings exist. such as sharks. giants. and mahimahis. Smaller Marine species that are at the base of the nutrient web for larger animate beings include marine invertebrate and works species. such as runts.
starfish sponges. corals. windflowers. gorgonians. and conches ( CDF. 2008 ) .
Human Threats in the AreaUNESCO mission confirmed the serious menaces to the Galapagos National Park and Marine Reserve coming from the “growing invasion of invasive species. increasing human in-migration. uncontrolled development of touristry.
and the failure of assorted establishments and bureaus to cover with these threats” ( 2007 ) . The increased human presence has hastened the debut of works and animate being species that threaten the indigen and endemic vegetations and zoologies ( Epler. 2007. cited in Watkins & A ; Cruz. 2007 ) . e. g.
. birds as hosts and disease bearers. black rats viing with endemic rice rat populations ( CDF. 2008 ) . The fishing roar has increased the local population by about 200 % in 2005 from 10. 000 in 1990—the new occupants with different beliefs and behaviours are less concerned with environmental issues ( Epler.
2007 ) .Over-fishing or over-harvesting of natural resources. long-line fishing. and illegal commercial fishing for shark fives and other marine resources continue to set force per unit areas on Marine ecosystems ( CDF. 2008 ) . The development of the touristry industry had increased the figure of visitants from 41. 000 in 1990 to more than 100.
000 in 2005 ( Epler. 2007 ) —the tourers are attracted to a assortment of activities—diving. sails. snorkeling. shore jaunts. bird observation. sea kayaking.
fishing. and surfing and. but these activities.
if non regulated can do amendss to the ecosystems. The struggles among assorted sectors with viing economic involvements. and the deficiency of response by authorities establishments added to the key Galapagos environmental jobs. Existing Measures to Protect and Preserve the Galapagos IslandsThe 1998 Special Law for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Galapagos Province provides the legal model in furthering a participatory attack to preservation and sustainable development activities ( CDF. 2008 ) . UNESCO and the World Conservation Union set up the Charles Darwin Foundation ( CDF ) in 1959 to supply scientific research.
offer proficient advice to the Government. and disseminate information to guarantee preservation success in Galapagos ( CDF. 2008 ) . CDF is involved in making a new theoretical account for preservation direction in Galapagos that focuses on “long-term ecological. societal. and economic sustainability” .
and recognizes human existences and their activities as portion of the Galapagos ecosystem ( 2008 ) .It collaborates with the Galapagos National Park Service ( the chief authorities authorization ) . national and local establishments. scientists.
local occupants. tourers. and other stakeholders in the attempts to protect and continue Galapagos. CDF ( 2008 ) performed complex undertakings and will go on to execute its duties to conserve Galapagos. The undermentioned are among its accomplishments: ( 1 ) a sustainable touristry theoretical account for Galapagos ; ( 2 ) engagement in developing the Particular Law for Galapagos ; ( 3 ) an herbarium with the largest aggregation of Galapagos workss in the universe ; ( 4 ) the deliverance of legion species from extinction.
such as the Giant tortoises and land iguanas ; ( 5 ) the world’s largest plan on eliminating or taking invasive workss and animate beings ( e. g.. ferine caprine animals. hogs.
rats ) from Galapagos ; ( 6 ) the rediscovery of assorted “extinct” works species ; ( 7 ) the complete mention aggregation of invertebrates in Galapagos ; ( 8 ) a group of well-trained scientists and professionals working for Galapagos ; and ( 9 ) environmental instruction centres. supplying learning stuffs for occupants and tourers. Meanwhile. the Galapagos National Park Services ( GNPS ) established the National Park regulations. which are enforced by park wardens and ushers. Apart from this. GNPS proctors and controls the native vegetations and fauna species. controls and eradicates introduced invasive species.
investigates research lab. proctors sustainable usage of natural resources. and controls and oversees the national park.Overall. while much remains to be done to protect and conserve Galapagos. the Galapagos Conservancy claimed that the combined attempts of organisations and persons at work have resulted in of import marks of advancement. to humor.
among others: ( 1 ) Isabela will shortly be free from ferine caprine animals and hogs. ( 2 ) “endemic works and carnal species antecedently on the threshold of extinction are recovering” . ( 3 ) more local occupants are take parting in conserving attempts and placing sustainable economic options for fishermen. ( 4 ) a figure of Canis familiariss and cats were neutered. ( 5 ) the Australian ladybeetle was successfully released.
and ( 6 ) a elephantine tortoise was sighted in Espanola Island. Individual Initiatives to Protect and Continue the Galapagos Islands The protection and preservation of the environment is everybody’s duty.As an person.
one has so much to offer in one’s ain manner. including the undermentioned enterprises: ( 1 ) educate oneself about the native and endemic species in both ecosystems in Galapagos ; ( 2 ) aid eliminate unsafe and invasive species that were introduced ; ( 3 ) promote consciousness of and support for Galapagos Islands ; ( 4 ) progress sense of personal stewardship ; ( 5 ) voluntary for beach and reef killings. community webs. research. or information ; ( 6 ) support or lend straight to the work of foundations.
and organisations. in charge of safeguarding and conserving the Galapagos Islands ; ( 7 ) be an informed consumer—only buy Marine merchandises that had been collected in an ecologically sound mode ; ( 8 ) do non roll up unrecorded or dead corals. and other natural resources in Galapagos Islands. if you happen to be a tourer ; ( 9 ) do non touch nor feed the animate beings ; ( 10 ) maintain rubbish out of the beaches and oceans ; and ( 11 ) follow the usher and other instructions. Extra Measures. if anyThe Galapagos Islands still face the same challenges that continue to jeopardize its alone biodiversity. Invasive species remain a menace to tellurian biodiversity. The turning local population and illegal commercial fishing resulted in over-harvesting of marine resources and pollution.
The increasing demand by international markets for marine resources and touristry provided force per unit areas for a greater local entree to natural resources. Much work remains to be done to protect and conserve the land and marine ecosystems in Galapagos Islands. Past and bing enterprises were on the right way.
but attempts need to be doubled to maintain up with the faster gait of touristry growing.Furthermore. the synergism among different stakeholders with conflicting involvements to take a portion of stewardship in conserving the two protected countries is a pre-condition. coupled with a stable national leading. Impact of Threats on the Area If the adult male made invasions in Galapagos Islands continue without ordinance and other signifiers of intercessions to halt jeopardizing the species and their home grounds.
these species may be irretrievably lost. Other marine resources in other parts of the universe will as good be affected. Conclusions The Galapagos Islands national park and Marine have alone ecosystems with diverse native and endemic species of vegetations and zoologies.
UNESCO merely late inscribed it on the list of World Heritage in Danger.Although there are marks of advancement as respects attempts to protect and conserve the protected countries. Galapagos Islands continue to confront challenges that threaten its biodiversity: invasive species. turning but irresponsible local population. illegal fishing. planetary demands for touristry and marine resources. and conflicting involvements of assorted stakeholders. Past and bing enterprises were on the right way.
but attempts need to be doubled to maintain up with the gait of touristry growing. Furthermore. stewardship by all stakeholders and a stable national leading will rush up the procedure.
Mentions Charles Darwin Foundation. ( 2008. March 28 ) . Galapagos Islands. Retrieved March 28. 2008. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. darwinfoundation.
org/en/ . Galapagos Conservancy. ( n. d. ) . Conservation: a brief overview of Galapagos. the focal point of our work.
Retrieved March 28. 2008. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Galapagos Islands. org/conservation. hypertext markup language.
Galapagos Conservation Trust. ( 2001. January 1 ) . Galapagos Islands. Retrieved March 29. 2008. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
gct. org/intro. hypertext markup language. Galapagos National Park Service. ( n. d. ) . Galapagos.
Retrieved March 29. 2008. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. galapagospark.
org/png/index. php. UNESCO World Heritage. ( 2007.
April 11 ) . UNESCO mission confirms menace to Galapagos Islands. Retrieved March 29. 2008. from hypertext transfer protocol: //whc.
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. org/en/news/322. UNESCO World Heritage. ( 2008 ) . Galapagos Islands.
Retrieved March 29. 2008. from hypertext transfer protocol: //whc. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.
org/en/list/1/ . Watkins. G. .
and Cruz. F. ( 2007. May ) . Galapagos at hazard: a soci