A proper sanitation and regulations. A microorganism is

A problem that affects millions, but usually in underdeveloped countries is in fact, poor sanitation.  However, this problem not only affects third world countries but can also affect the “cleanest” of people.  Microorganisms live in every corner, crack, or hole that can be seen by the naked eye.  These same microorganisms can live in food, water, and even people.  On the other hand, there are precautions that can be made by proper sanitation and regulations.  A microorganism is a microscopic specimen; bacteria, fungi, or protozoa that cannot be seen by the naked eye (Dictionary.com).  There are many different locations where these microorganisms thrive.  Ranging from cool dry places to warm and damp. They all have evolved to live in a specific environment.  For example, cryptosporidium is an aquatic protozoan.  This parasite travels by water and can do so at long periods of time due to a thick cell wall even when not inhabiting a host.  As a result of having a thick cell wall, it allows the parasite to be well resistant to chlorine-based disinfectant solutions used for water treatment.  Cryptosporidium is one of the most common waterborne parasites in the United States.  This parasite is not just native to the U.S., but the entire world.  Just the U.S. alone it affects 750,000 people annually (CDC Works).  It infects animals by entering by contaminated water, then the protozoa attach itself to the lining of the respiratory tract and small intestine walls (Cryptosporidiosis).  In 1993, Milwaukee, Wisconsin had a crypto outbreak in the south end of the city.  Physicians started to know something was off when there were a high number of ill people with the same miserable symptoms.  They had a moderately high fever along, nausea, vomiting, severe watery diarrhea, and complete dehydration (Cryptosporidium Infection).  This raised many red flags to the city of Milwaukee and it’s population of 1.4 million people.  Once they identified the illness being cryptosporidium, they had to find out where it was coming from so they could neutralize it at its source.  Knowing it can be passed human-to-human, animal-human, and water-to-everyone else, they had a broad search at their hands. They started with water samples from all their water treatment plants which lead to show it targeted Southern Milwaukee.  Their next step was getting this information out to the public as soon as possible to make sure all the necessary precautions, like boiling water before drinking it, were being taken to minimize illnesses and fatalities.  They were able to identify the illness rather quickly, but for some, it did not come quickly enough.  There were sixty-nine people that ended up dying from the illness.  With ninety-three percent being AIDS patients and a few being cancer patients and children (Crypto Outbreak).  A week before the city mandated water should be boiled before ingestion NCAA held a college hockey tournament.  This sent crypto and a nasty infection home with them, and some as far as Maine.   The next question that had to be asked was, “Where is this coming from and how did it start?”  The epidemiologist that were working this case originally believed that the outbreak was caused by runoff from the livestock fields.  They had a wet winter with rain and snow therefore heavy runoff was inevitable.  This leads them to test the feces of the livestock and the results were negative.  At this point, the epidemiologists were back to square one.  It was not until fifteen years later that there was scientific development in technology that allowed them to identify the exact strain of crypto, Cryptosporidium hominis.  This specific strain of crypto only affects humans, because it is only transmitted from human-to-human.  Therefore, they had to conclude that this parasite was brought in from one of the 1.4 million people from a country that had a poor water treatment process.  They also concluded that there was a fault in the water treatment plant.  They noticed water samples were a bit unusual but no other questions were asked.  However, this simplistic mistake cost people’s lives.After they finally were able to get a grip on this situation they had to figure out how to make sure that an incident like this can never happen again.  There are a couple different ways they can prevent another crypto epidemic.  The water will go through a filtration process through filters.  However, not all filters are able to filter such a small organism, therefore they are required by the Environmental Protection Agency to use an MSR microfilter or purifier that removes and/or removal of all Cryptosporidium oocysts (Water Treatment).  On the other hand, Milwaukee went with a more effective treatment for this infectious disease, ozone.  Which is a chemical process used to deactivate and destroy any bacterial cells, viruses, and even metals (Debrum).  Ozone is completely safe for consumption being that it does not leave any residue, odd tastes, or chemical by-products (Debrum).  This process also works many times quicker than chlorine based sanitary processes (Debrum).  It is more efficient being that you can use less than your typical chlorine sanitation processes with the same success rate for nearly half the amount (Debrum).  Unfortunately, Milwaukee is not the only city or area that has had massive effects from infectious diseases, though it is not surprising, third-world countries suffer the most.  Without proper medical care and knowledge of hygiene, millions die every year from infectious diseases (The Top).  A recent outbreak of an infectious disease was Ebola located in Africa.  This outbreak began March 23, 2014, and the affected countries did not become “Ebola-free” until January 13, 2016.  Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Nigeria all had multiple confirmed cases equalling to 11,315 deaths (Ebola).  Ebola hemorrhagic fever, which is also known as just Ebola, is a disease with a total of five known strains: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Taï Forest ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, and Reston ebolavirus (About).  However, Reston virus does not affect humans, but only primates (About).In 1976, Ebola was first discovered and has shown up all around Africa since then. Due to the environmental conditions:The natural reservoir host of Ebola virus remains unknown. However, on the basis of evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is animal-borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir. Four of the five virus strains occur in an animal host native to Africa (About).  People contract Ebola from cuts or abrasions in the eyes, nose, or mouth (About). Along with the disease, you obtain miserable symptoms such as pains all over the body, vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, bleeding on the interior and exterior of the body, etc. (Nichols). When there is such an outbreak of the Ebola virus it is very hard to control and pinpoint because it is hard to know where it is coming from.  Therefore at the time of no vaccine in production with an actual success rate, the only thing they could do was treat the virus.  The treatments in moderate cases are rather simple.  Since there is such a high amount of fluids exiting the body via sweat, vomit, and diarrhea the body needs as many fluids as it is trying to push out to rid itself of the disease.  With one of the symptoms causing it to be difficult to breathe there is an inadequacy of oxygen to the body.  If this continues for long periods of time then the body will begin to shut down.  This means the patient would have to be given oxygen to maximize body functions.  However, a few year ago in July of 2015, they have tested a vaccine, Ebola ca Suffit, the preliminary results had shown that it had a one hundred percent efficacy during the trial of four thousand people in Guinea (Nichols).  However, they still have to get this to the public in massive amounts because every day people are at risk of attaining this fatal disease.  There is not a way to stop Ebola from infecting people.  However, there are ways to prevent Ebola from infecting people.  Stay clear of Ebola ridden areas is the obvious, but if you work for an organizations that have to deal with the treatment of the infected, you are required to wear all sterilized protective body suites (Nichols).   The AIDS (Autoimmune Deficiency Syndrome) was something that was never heard of.  That is until the year of 1981, physicians noticed rare illnesses and cancers were starting to arise without a definitive explanation.  On June 5, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publish a Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), describing cases of a rare lung infection, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), in five young, previously healthy, gay men in Los Angeles. All the men have other unusual infections as well, indicating that their immune systems are not working; two have already died by the time the report is published (A Timeline). Was one case of many that arose concerns to physicians and CDC.  Multiple cases of Kaposi’s Sarcoma, a total of forty one to be exact, surfaced in New York and California.  At this point CDC wanted to get ahead of the outbreaks and assigned a “Task Force” on the particular cancer and “Opportunistic Infections” (A Timeline). Out of the two hundred and seventy cases, one hundred and twenty-one had passed away due to an immune deficiency in homosexual men (A Timeline).  


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