A RESEARCH Undertaking: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIETARY ( NUTRITIONAL ) SUPPLEMENT USE BETWEEN ELITE ( PROFESSIONAL ) AND NON-ELITE ( NON-PROFESSIONAL ) FOOTBALL PLAYERS.RecognitionsAbstractionDietary supplementation is a subject of involvement to athleticss research workers and participants likewise.
In this survey, the current literature on the usage of dietetic addendums in football was been briefly reviewed. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out to happen differences between 28 elite ( professional ) and 28 non-elite ( non-professional ) participants drawn from a sum of 12 football nines with respect to their usage of, and attitude towards dietetic addendums. The consequences showed that elect participants were more likely to utilize dietetic addendums ( P & lt ; 0.
05 ) , and they used them on a more frequent footing. Elite participants were more likely to see dietetic supplementation as of import more than non-elite participants ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) , and they were more likely to confer with professional beginnings of information than the non-elite participants ( 0.05 ) . Reasons adduced by participants for taking dietetic addendums include compensation for unequal eating, helping recovery, keeping overall wellness, and heightening public presentation.CONTENTS PageTitle Page1Acknowledgments2Abstract3List of Tables5List of Figures6Introduction7Reappraisal of the Literature8Methods11Results12Discussions14Decisions and Suggestions for Further Work16References17Appendix 1: Tables and Figures19Appendix 2: Transcript of Questionnaire28List OF TABLESTable 1: Statistical p-values for the chi-square trial of independency for comparative analysis of mensural parametric quantities between elect and non-elite football participants ( n = 56 )List OF FIGURESFigure 1: Frequency distribution for elect and non-elite footballers’ agesFigure 2: Frequency distribution for figure of lucifers played by elect and non-elite football playersFigure 3: Frequency distribution for elect and non-elite football players who use or do non utilize dietetic addendumsFigure 4: Frequency distribution for the type of dietetic addendums used by elect and non-elite football playersFigure 5: Frequency distribution for the frequence of taking each dietetic addendum used by elect and non-elite football playersFigure 6: Frequency distribution for the reported attitude of elect and non-elite football players to the importance of dietetic addendumsFigure 7: Frequency distribution for the beginnings of information consulted by elect and non-elite football players on the usage of dietetic addendumsFigure 8: Frequency distribution for the reported principle of elect and non-elite football players for taking dietetic addendumsIntroductionA dietetic addendum has been defined as a merchandise taken by oral cavity that contains a “ dietetic ingredient ” intended to supplement the diet ( U.
S. Food and Drug Administration, 2001 ) . In athleticss, dietetic addendums in usage come in the signifier of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks or bars ; vitamin or mineral pills ; pulverizations and drinks incorporating amino-acid or protein merchandises ; caffeinated drinks ; antioxidant readyings ; creatine addendums ; glucosamine- and chondroitin-containing merchandises ; every bit good as weight-loss readyings.There are several grounds why football participants utilise dietetic addendums. The first is to heighten their public presentation in lucifers. Because football involves activities necessitating aerophilic endurance ( sprinting ) and strength ( jumping, kicking, undertaking ) , addendums which augment the ability of the organic structure to execute these activities are used. Such addendums include saccharides, electrolytes, B-complex vitamins, caffeine, creatine, and the amino acerb metabolite beta-hydroxy-?-methylbutarate. Another group of addendums that are indirectly used to heighten public presentation are weight-loss merchandises like joint fir, as extra organic structure fat can impair power end product and endurance capacity ( Hespel et al.
, 2006 ) .Second, dietetic addendums are used to help in post-match recovery and keep long-run general wellness position. Protein addendums and creatine aid in stimulating recovery after lucifers or exercising, and serve to increase musculus mass ; antioxidants like vitamins C and E, Se, and beta-carotene are taken to forestall exercised-induced musculus harm ; glucosamine and chondroitin are used for bettering joint hurting and relieving arthritis ; and vitamin C is used for hiking the immune system ( Hawley et al.
, 2006, Hespel et al. , 2006 ) .The 3rd ground dietetic addendums are used is to supplement baseline hapless eating. Many football players, either due to personal lifestyle grounds or the emphasis of lucifers, do non eat an equal and balanced diet ; hence, they resort to the usage of addendums to supply the balance of dietetic constituents they need.
Do dietetic addendums work? The reply varies, depending on which addendums are in inquiry, and what the criterions are for measuring what “works” . Harmonizing to a recent reappraisal ( Hespel et al. , 2006 ) , dietetic addendums used in football may be categorised into three groups on the footing of the strength of grounds in their support: those that have been once and for all proven to work in some exercising state of affairss ( protein addendums, caffeine, saccharides, creatine, and joint fir ) ; those that have ambiguous grounds in support of their efficaciousness ( antioxidants, beta-hydroxy-?-methylbutarate, glucosamine, and vitamin C ) ; and those that have no scientific grounds in support of their efficaciousness ( including ribose, ginseng, co-enzyme Q10, glutamine, and L-carnitine ) .
The purpose of this research is to analyze on a limited graduated table the differences between elite ( i.e. professional ) and non-elite ( i.e. non-professional ) association football participants with respect to their usage of dietetic addendums, their principle for utilizing them, and their attitudes toward dietetic supplementation.REVIEW OF THE LITERATUREA brief study of the literature will be presented in this subdivision, with a focal point on the mechanistic bases for the effects of addendums on exercising public presentation, information from surveies on the efficaciousness or otherwise of common addendums, the distinctive features of dietetic supplementation with female and youth association football participants, every bit good as the hazards and inauspicious effects from dietetic addendums used in football.Mechanistic facets of dietetic addendum usageQuite a great trade of research has gone into abducing scientific accounts of how dietetic addendums work to better public presentation in athleticss, including football.
Harmonizing to Kirkendall ( Kirkendall, 2000 ) , pre-game concentrations of animal starch are lower in football players than in other jocks ; important animal starch depletion occurs in the first half of drama ; and at the terminal of the game, animal starch is wholly depleted. Hence, the reversal of animal starch depletion by protein/carbohydrate mixtures could heighten public presentation on both a short-run and long-run footing ( Hawley et al. , 2006 ) .It has been acknowledged that carbohydrate consumption during exercising, in the signifier of carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks, leads to public presentation benefits, even though the mechanism underlying this ergogenic consequence has non been clearly defined ( Tsintzas and Williams, 1998 ) . It is known nevertheless, that during low strength or intermittent exercising, taking saccharides could ensue in decreased musculus animal starch use in good trained persons with high resting musculus animal starch degrees ( Tsintzas and Williams, 1998 ) .
Nutritional intercessions have been reported to compensate desiccation, hyperthermy, hypothermia, hypoxia, sleep loss, and asynchronism of internal biological redstem storksbills, which are frequently experienced by professional football players ( Armstrong, 2006 ) .Harmonizing to Gleeson and Bishop ( Gleeson and Bishop, 2000 ) , compromised immune map in jocks could be caused both by the emphasis of effort every bit good as hapless nutritionary wonts. Carbohydrate depletion causes additions in go arounding emphasis endocrines and induces a disturbance of several immune map indices ; while the deficiency of protein and certain micronutrients could compromise immune map. These effects could good be ameliorated utilizing equal nutritionary schemes integrating a well-balanced diet that may rid of the demand for dietetic addendums. They reported that devouring saccharide during exercising attenuates rises in emphasis endocrines, such as hydrocortisone, and appears to restrict the grade of exercise-induced immunosuppression. However, there was no equal grounds in support of the proposition that high doses of anti-oxidant vitamins prevent exercise-induced immunosuppression.It has besides been postulated that certain branched aminic acids and tyrosine may better exercising public presentation via effects on cognitive map, but this has non been once and for all proven in trials ( Meeusen et al.
, 2006 ) .Evidence for efficaciousness ( or deficiency of it )A randomized controlled survey in elect female association football participants found that Fe supplementation significantly increased organic structure Fe shops and inhibited the lessening of haemoglobin concentration induced by association football preparation ( Kang and Matsuo, 2004 ) . In a similar vena, Fe supplementation has been found to better public presentation in anemic jocks, but non in non-anaemic jocks, even when they have underlying Fe lack ( Ekblom, 1997 ) .
Stroescu et Al. ( Stroescu et al. , 2001 ) found a lowering of metabolic-hormonal emphasis in elect female gymnasts utilizing supplementation with stray soy protein.Ohtani et Al. evaluated the effects of an amino acid mixture incorporating L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-valine, L-arginine, and L-glutamine in elect rugger participants after a 90-day disposal ( Ohtani et al. , 2001 ) .
They found that about all the participants reported betterment in energy and earlier recovery from weariness. Significant additions were observed in hemoglobin, red blood cell count, haematocrit, and serum Fe.In a placebo-controlled survey, the effects of acute creatine-monohydrate supplementation on soccer-specific public presentation was examined in immature male association football participants. It was reported that specific dribble trial times, sprint-power trial times, and perpendicular leap tallness improved significantly in the creatine group over the placebo group ( Ostojic, 2004 ) .A survey of protein supplementation in combination with opposition preparation showed that protein addendums did increase musculus mass and mechanical musculus map in trial topics over those taking carbohydrate addendums entirely ( Andersen et al. , 2005 ) .In another survey, it was found that elect female association football participants having creatine supplementation recorded improved public presentation of some repeated dash and legerity undertakings imitating association football lucifer drama over the placebo group, despite an addition in organic structure mass ( Cox et al.
, 2002 )In a reappraisal of the effects of vitamin and mineral position on the physical public presentation of jocks, Lucaski ( Lukaski, 2004 ) reported that ague or short-run fringy lack of vitamin B had no impact on public presentation steps. In contrast to vitamins nevertheless, fringy mineral lacks were found to impair public presentation. Iron lack, with or without anemia, impairs musculus map and bounds work capacity. Magnesium want additions O demands to finish submaximal exercising and reduces endurance public presentation. Interestingly, the reappraisal found that the usage of vitamin and mineral addendums did non better steps of public presentation in people devouring equal diets.
However, no important benefit has been found for the undermentioned addendums: conjugated linoleic acids ( Kreider et al. , 2002 ) ; caffeine-containing addendums [ 1 ] ( Malek et al. , 2006 ) ; big doses of vitamin E ( McAnulty et al. , 2005 ) ; ribose ( Peveler et al. , 2006 ) ; yohimbine ( Ostojic, 2006 ) ; and bovine foremilk ( Mero et al.
, 2002, Mero et al. , 2005 ) .Particular considerations for female and young person football playersThe curious issues posed by female and young person participants with respect to nutritionary supplementation has been highlighted in a recent first-class reappraisal ( Rosenbloom et al. , 2006 ) . Because female participants eat less when preparation and viing than their male opposite numbers, they have lower consumptions of energy, saccharide, and other foods. This comparative lack, in add-on to certain distinctive features of female physiology, implies that dietetic supplementation between participants of both sexes will affect different considerations which should be accounted for in carry oning research surveies and in generalizing the consequences from past surveies.
Similarly, youth football participants are alone in respect to energy and alimentary demands to advance growing and development, every bit good as to fuel athletics. Besides, harmonizing to Rowland ( Rowland, 2000 ) , both growing and functional alterations that occur in kids ( as opposed to grownups ) make it hard to measure the effects of exercising on growing and development ; hence appraisal of the effects of nutritionary addendums may change. In a survey of high degree adolescent association football participants, it was found that although diet provided sufficient Fe, 48 % of persons tested showed iron lack without anemia. This underlines the importance of nutritionary intercession for optimising public presentation in this age group of football players ( Iglesias-Gutierrez et al. , 2005 ) .Adverse effects from addendum usageAs dietetic addendums contain bioactive chemicals of different types, it can non be ruled out that a certain grade of hazard attends the unchecked usage of these merchandises.
This hazard is compounded by the unethical pattern of mislabelling merchandises either in footings of failure to unwrap banned ergogenic drugs, every bit good as the taint of merchandises ( Hespel et al. , 2006 ) . This can ensue non merely in wellness jobs for participants, but besides in terrible legal deductions to the calling of affected participants ( Striegel et al. , 2005 ) . In add-on, it has been pointed out that long-run safety informations are non available for most athleticss addendums ; hence there remains a subtle but potentially serious wellness hazard even with those merchandises which have been given a clean measure of wellness from short-run safety trials ( Hespel et al.
, 2006 ) .MethodA sum of 56 football participants were recruited for an experimental survey in which they were requested to finish questionnaires about their patterns and attitudes with regard to the usage of dietetic addendum AIDSs. 28 of the participants were elite ( professional ) football participants drawn from the following nines: Sheffield Wednesday FC, Sheffield United FC, Rotherham United FC, Preston North End FC, Swindon Town FC, and Chesterfield United FC. The other 28 participants were non-elite ( non-professional ) participants from four squads: the Leeds Metropolitan University football squad, Scarborough FC, Skyrack F.C.
( Leeds pub squad ) , and Hallam FC ( from Sheffield ) . The term “professional” was defined as contracted to play full clip professional football for the 2006/2007 season, while “non-professional” was defined as playing football but non full clip contracted.The questionnaires were completed between February 24Thursdayand March 20Thursday, 2007, this being about 2/3rdof the manner through the conference season ( the ground why a full season’s worth of games was non included in inquiry 3 of the questionnaire ) . The questionnaire ( Appendix 2 ) featured inquiries over the age of participants, the frequence with which they play lucifers, whether they used nutritionary addendums or non, which kinds of addendums they used and the frequence of taking each addendum. Other inquiries were how significantly they rated the usage of dietetic addendums, which beginnings of information they consult on dietetic supplementation, and the grounds why they take dietetic addendums.
The responses to the questionnaires were collated and analysed. The end product is shown in the frequence distribution charts shown in Figures 1-8. Statistical analysis was performed on the information from the inquiries utilizing Microsoft Excel 2003 package.
Specifically, the Pearson chi-square trial of independency ( Rodriguez, 2006 ) was performed on the information from dietetic addendum usage to find if there was a statistically important association between the professional position of the participants and their patterns and attitudes with respect to dietary addendum usage. P-values were recorded to two important figures, and statistical significance was defined at the P & lt ; 0.05 degree.ConsequenceThe participants in the survey were approximately balanced between the two groups with regard to age distribution and figure of first-team lucifers played ( Figures 1 and 2 severally ) , although the professional participants tended to be younger, and all non-professional participants had played more than 5 lucifers in the season. These differences reflect the contrasting fortunes of professional and non-professional football and were non expected to impact drastically on the behavior of the participants with regard to the focal point of the survey.
As depicted in Figure 3, 26 out of 28 elect participants surveyed ( 93 % ) reported usage of dietetic addendums, as opposed to 13 out of 28 non-elite participants ( 46 % ) . This was a statistically important difference ( p & lt ; 0.001 ) , and portrays the fact that elect participants utilise these addendums much more than non-professionals do.In both groups, the most extremely utilized dietetic addendums are athleticss drinks, which were used by 79 % of professional participants and 39 % of non-professional participants ( Figure 4 ) . Following in rank were multivitamin/vitamin addendums, which were used by 61 % of professional participants, as opposed to 25 % of the non-professional participants. Protein addendums, mineral pills and creatine were used to a smaller extent, but in each instance, the balance of usage was in favor of the elite participants.
It was informative that the difference in use of athleticss drinks and multivitamin readyings between the elite and non-elite participants was statistically important ( p & lt ; 0.01 ) , while the difference in use of other merchandises did non accomplish statistical significance.The frequence of taking these addendums is illustrated in Figure 5, from where it could be seen that in all instances, elect participants took more addendums on both a day-to-day every bit good as hebdomadal footing than non-elite participants, except for athleticss drinks which were preponderantly used on a hebdomadal footing by the non-professional participants. Among both groups, more participants took their addendums on a day-to-day than on a hebdomadal footing, except for protein addendums which were taken by professional jocks more on a hebdomadal than a day-to-day footing. No addendum was reported as being taken on an entirely monthly footing by any participant.In footings of attitudes sing the utility of dietetic addendums ( Figure 6 ) , more professional than non-professional participants tended to see their usage as of import ( embracing “very important” and “quite important” responses ) than non ( including “not important” , “no significance at all” and “neutral” responses ) . This difference was statistically important ( p & lt ; 0.
05 ) .With respect to the beginnings that participants consult for advice and information on addendum use, professional participants by and large tended to obtain their information more from professional beginnings ( physicians or physical therapists ) than non-professional participants, whose major beginnings of information are self-help beginnings ( the Internet and books ) . Interestingly, a somewhat higher proportion of non-professional participants reported acquiring information from fittingness trainers ( 29 % ) than professional participants ( 25 % ) . It was besides observed that 32 % of professional participants use more than one beginning of information, as opposed to 18 % of non-professional participants. An overall statistical analysis showed that the proportion of elect participants that obtain information from professional beginnings was significantly higher than that of non-elite participants utilizing professional beginnings ( P & lt ; 0.005 ) .
Participant responses on the grounds for their pickings dietetic addendums are shown in Figure 8. It may be readily observed that the preponderance of elect participants ( 75 % ) claim to be taking these addendums for helping recovery ( a ground given by merely 7 % of non-elite participants ) , whereas the dominant principle offered by non-professional participants was for the sweetening of public presentation. 14 % of non-professional participants admit to taking dietetic addendums to augment a hapless baseline diet, as opposed to 7 % of elect participants proffering the same ground.
DiscussionThe participants studied were all males within the age scope of mid-twentiess and mid-thirtiess, which make them physiologically at par, with respect to age and gender. Since it has been shown earlier that there are particular considerations with respect to female and adolescent participants ( Rosenbloom et al. , 2006 ) , the comparings of the survey are valid with respect to age group considerations.The determination that professional participants use addendums more than non-professional participants is logical in position of the fact that elite participants have their callings at interest, and therefore will be given to maximize their public presentation utilizing available legal agencies. This consequence is in understanding with the consequences of a past survey of British professional association football participants on dietetic addendum usage ( Waddington et al.
, 2005 )Sports drinks and multivitamin merchandises were found to be the most extremely used merchandises. This could be due to the popularity that advertisement has brought to these merchandises, and besides due to their handiness and low cost.The observation that elect participants take addendums on a more frequent footing than non-elite participants may besides be attributed to the importance attached to their usage, every bit good as the fact that elite participants play more lucifers ( numbering pattern Sessionss ) than non-elite participants do, and they besides engage in more frequent preparation exercisings, even if both groups play about the same figure of conference lucifers within the season.The differences obtained to the inquiry of how significantly they view the usage of addendums once more mirrors the fact that professional participants have greater motive to execute good, and therefore they are more likely to see dietetic supplementation as critical to their productiveness.On the beginnings of information used by the participants for instruction on addendum usage, it was logical that professional participants relied more on professional beginnings than the Internet or self-help literature, because they are likely to be enlightened as to the built-in hazards in utilizing the incorrect addendum or taking addendums unsuitably, hence they will seek to acquire the most dependable information possible. Besides, this may be attributed to their easier entree to squad physicians and physical therapists than non-professional participants. However, it is interesting that this consequence ran contrary to a larger survey which showed that merely approximately 20 % of British professional association football participants utilised the services of professionals in seeking information on dietetic supplementation ( Waddington et al. , 2005 ) .
This difference could be due to the much smaller sample size used in this survey, or to strong encouragement from the nines involved for their members to confer with professionals on such issues. It could besides be due to altering patterns brought approximately by the publication of the earlier survey.A higher per centum of non-professional than professional participants used addendums to augment a hapless diet. This reflects a by and large poorer attending to baseline healthy eating by non-professional participants ; elite participants are more likely to train themselves to feed decently in order to keep sound wellness. The consequences besides show that professional participants tended more to concentrate on utilizing addendums to help in recovery, which reflects their attending to long-run wellness and consistent public presentation.Restrictions of the surveyThis survey has a figure of of import restrictions that should be considered when construing the consequences. First, it was limited merely to male participants within a certain age scope.
Hence, the consequences can non be justly extrapolated to female participants or young person football players. Besides, the sample size used was little, and few nines were represented. This implies that cautiousness is needed in using findings on a cosmopolitan footing. No systematic randomization was done on the choice of take parting topics ; hence the consequences are inherently capable to bias ensuing from non-randomisation. Furthermore, there was no rigorous rating of the concentrations of active ingredients in the addendums taken by the participants, and this makes the deductions of the findings vague in a manner. In the appraisal of multivitamin and mineral addendums, we did non account for participants taking combination pills incorporating both minerals and vitamins. Last, the appraisal of frequence of taking the addendums was non really specific in that we did non measure if some topics took these multiple times within a twenty-four hours, or multiple yearss within a hebdomad.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WORKThis survey has examined the usage of dietetic addendums by elite ( professional ) and non-elite ( non-professional ) football participants, with a position to finding differences in pattern and attitudes between the two groups.It was found that professional participants were more likely to utilize dietetic addendums than non-professional participants ; they besides utilised these addendums on a more frequent footing than the non-professional participants. Sports drinks and vitamin addendums were the types most utilized among both groups.
Elite participants were more likely to confer with professional beginnings of information on dietetic supplementation than non-elite participants, and they besides viewed dietetic supplementation as of import more than the non-elite participants.However, there is still a batch that could be done in surveies along this line. Because even fringy betterments from dietetic addendums are taken earnestly by athleticss participants and managers, it is of import to develop proving methodological analysiss that will right nail these benefits ( Brouns et al. , 2002 ) . It has been proposed that such surveies will ideally be randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind tests utilizing a big sample size ( Haskell and Kiernan, 2000 ) . It will besides be of import to choose trials with high dependability, potent but safe addendum readyings, and guarantee a high degree of intervention attachment by survey participants ( Haskell and Kiernan, 2000 ) .Finally, more surveies should be carried out to supply specific informations in regard of female and youth football players and their usage of dietetic addendums.
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|Parameter||P-value for Chi-Square Test of Independence|
|Use mineral pills||0.22|
|Use protein addendums||0.31|
|Use athleticss drinks||0.0028|
|Rate addendums as of import||0.031|
|Use professional beginnings of information on addendums||0.00021|
Table 1: Statistical p-values for the chi-square trial of independency for comparative analysis of mensural parametric quantities between elect and non-elite football participants ( n = 56 )Figure 1: Frequency distribution for elect and non-elite footballers’ agesFigure 2: Frequency distribution for figure of lucifers played by elect and non-elite football playersFigure 3: Frequency distribution for elect and non-elite football players who use or do non utilize dietetic addendumsFigure 4: Frequency distribution for the type of dietetic addendums used by elect and non-elite football players ( MV- vitamin addendums ; MP- mineral pills ; PR – protein addendums ; SD- athleticss drinks ; CR-creatine )Figure 5: Frequency distribution for the frequence of taking each dietetic addendum used by elect and non-elite football players ( MV- vitamin addendums ; MP- mineral pills ; PR – protein addendums ; SD- athleticss drinks ; CR-creatine )Figure 6: Frequency distribution for the reported attitude of elect and non-elite football players to the importance of dietetic addendums ( VI –very of import ; QI- quite of import ; N-neutral ; NVI- non really of import ; NSI – no significance at all )Figure 7: Frequency distribution for the beginnings of information consulted by elect and non-elite football players on the usage of dietetic addendums ( I – Internet/books ; FT- fittingness trainer ; P- physical therapist ; DR- physician ; N-none ; MULTIPLE- more than one beginning used )Figure 8: Frequency distribution for the reported principle of elect and non-elite football players for taking dietetic addendums ( EP – Enhance Performance ; AR – Aid Recovery ; OH – Overall HealthSPD – Addendum Poor Diet )APPENDIX 2: Transcript OF QUESTIONNAIREQuestionnaire of dietetic addendum usage of football playersDefinition of dietetic addendum – “product taken by the oral cavity that contains a dietetic ingredient that is intended as a addendum to the diet”Please circle the relevant reply, where there is more than one reply circle every bit many as are relevant.Question 1 – what position of football do you play?Professional/non-professionalQuestion 2 – what age are you? 19-2425-3031+Question 3 – how many first squad games have you played this season?5 or below6-1011-1516+Question 4 – do you utilize dietetic addendums? ( See above definition )YesNoQuestion 5 – which of the undermentioned dietetic addendums do utilize?Multivitamin/Vitamin pillsMineral pillsProtein pulverization Ready made athleticss drinks CreatineQuestion 6 – how frequently do you utilize each addendum? ( delight write day-to-day, hebdomadal or monthly following to each addendum used )Multivitamin/Vitamin pills……………………Mineral pills……………………Protein powder……………………Ready made athleticss drinks……………………Creatine…………………… .Question 7 – how of import do you believe dietetic addendums are to your public presentation? ( Please circle )Very of importQuite ImportantImpersonalNot really of importNo significance at allQuestion 8 – where make you obtain your advice and information on addendum use? ( Circle every bit many as appropriate )Internet/booksFitness trainerPhysical therapist ( nine or otherwise )Doctor ( nine or otherwise )None of the aboveQuestion 9 – what ground do you take dietetic addendums? ( Circle every bit many as appropriate )Enhance public presentationAid recoveryOverall wellnessSupplement hapless diet1