1. Introduction The Republic of Malta is located in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an independent state. which includes the islands of Malta. Gozo and Comino. covering an country of 316 square kilometers. The Republic of Malta has a population of 417. 617 ( National Statistics. Demographic Review 2010 ) most of who live on the island of Malta. Appendix 1 shows that tourism in Malta started to turn in the late 1960’s with visitant Numberss increasing from 47. 804 in 1965 to 334. 519 by 1975. By 1980 visitants Numberss were up to 728. 732. with the touristry industry aimed at pulling the mass market. ( Lockhart. 1997 )
The latest tourer Numberss stand at 1. 3 million. ( National Statistics. Tourist Departures. 2010 ) As with many Mediterranean islands Malta’s touristry has been historically focused on mass touristry. Sun. sea and sand bundle holidays ensuing in the disregard of historical cultural and environmental impacts. ( Dodds. 2007 ) The rapid development of touristry in Malta combined with the high figure of seasonal visitants has lead to figure of impacts. These impacts can be accessed utilizing the ternary underside line attack developed by John Elkington in mention to the economic. societal and environmental impacts. ( Elkington. 1997 )
2. Issues When placing the issues that Malta is confronting. the rules of the Cape Town Declaration. Agenda 21 and the context of Responsible Tourism have been used as point of mention every bit good as a figure of official studies. including the State of the Environment Reports ( 2002. 1998 and 2005 and Malta’s National Report to the World Summit on Sustainable Development ( 2002 ) . On the footing of this research the following issues have been identified.
2. 1Economic Issues
2. 1. 1Pressure on the island substructure The rapid development of the touristry industry in Malta has resulted in deficient consideration and planning being given to the country’s substructure. Malta is a little island. yet its substructure. as antecedently mentioned now has to back up its ain population and the 1. 3 million tourers. Despite the turning Numberss of tourers. unequal investing into the country’s substructure is still non in topographic point. This is a common issue in many resorts ; substructures are unable to get by with the strength of tourer trial at peak periods of the twelvemonth ( Mathieson and Wall 1982 ) Malta’s roads are of hapless status. With congestion. noise and air pollution being an issue. The H2O supply. waste direction. beaches and visitant attractive forces are stretched to capacity in the summer months each twelvemonth when visitant Numberss are at their extremum. 2. 1. 2Seasonality of visitants
Tourism in Malta is really seasonal. with the bulk of incoming tourers geting in the May to October period. In 2005. 68. 4 % of tourers arrived during these months. with 47. 8 % geting during the months of July and September. ( Appendix 2 shows Malta’s Tourist Departures 2001-2005 ) This shows that tourer densenesss in Malta are really high during the extremum season. In recent old ages the entire figure of tourers amounted to about three times every bit much as the resident population. ( Briguglio and Briguglio. 1996 )
2. 2Social Issues
2. 2. 1Employment Malta’s touristry industry operates 12 months of the twelvemonth ; the seasonality causes issues for the Maltese citizens as employment within the touristry sector in non full clip. High tourer densenesss As antecedently mentioned. Malta has a dumbly populated state. The inflow of visitants who arrive during the busy extremum season. cause overcrowding and congestion. seting increased force per unit area on the already labored substructure. This creates uncomfortableness for the local occupants. ( Briguglio and Briguglio. 1996 ) as they are unable to utilize the local conveyance. visit topographic points of involvement or travel to the beach. Damage to historical topographic points is caused through frequent visitant Numberss with many of the of import locations being in a province of decay
2. 3Environmental Issues
2. 3. 1Rapid addition in constructing work Building of tourer adjustment in Malta has increased at a really rapid rate as a consequence of intensive development in certain countries ( Briguglio and Briguglio. 1996 ) . High rise concrete hotels have replaced the traditional Maltese houses. losing local civilization and character. The increased building work and development of the touristry industry as had a negative impact on the environment. as non adequate committedness has been shown to the protection of the of import home grounds. The quarrying itself has an environmental impact. land debasement and dust pollution. The waste merchandises left after building. such as rubble. are non presently recycled. and are frequently dumped. ( A Sustainable Development Strategy for the Maltese Islands. 2006 ) Besides most of the edifices are non energy efficient. doing wasted energy and increased carbon dioxide. Renewable energy has non been incorporated into many of the belongingss.
2. 3. 2Waste
The sewerage web in Malta is to a great extent taxed by the native population entirely. ( Briguglio and Briguglio. 1996 ) . The high figure of tourers increases this job. This has had several knock-on effects including disgusting odors ; bays holding to be closed for swimming due to sewage pollution. debasement of vegetations and zoologies every bit good as harm to the coastal and marine life. Certain countries of Malta remain characterised by high degrees of littering and dumping. ( World Wide Web. mepa. org. mt/ter08-resources+waste ) .
2. 3. 3Water
Fresh water remains a scare national resource in Malta. peculiarly during the peak summer months due to the increased population denseness and waterless clime. ( World Wide Web. mepa. org. mt/ter08-freshwater ) . Hotels use big sums of H2O for swimming pools and irrigating gardens. which adds farther force per unit area to the limited supply. Malta has a high dependance on desalinated H2O. which is expensive to bring forth both from an economic and environmental point of position. Leakages from the distribution web are a job as is the quality of the imbibing H2O.
The chief issues identified by the ternary bottom line analysis of Malta are with the rapid development of the mass touristry Sun. sea and sand market. consideration was non given to the country’s substructure. Future planning had non been put in topographic point as to how the state would cover with high Numberss of visitants during the summer months. and what environmental effects this would hold on the state. The precedences focus on the issues which need to be addressed.
3. 1 Investing in substructure Tourism is of import to Malta’s economic system. it is hence of the topmost importance that the substructure is improved. so that it is able to manage turning visitor Numberss. Ascent of the roads is necessary ; if the roads were in improved. it would cut down the congestion and noise job. doing the visitant experience better every bit good as being a much needed betterment for the local people.
3. 2 Development of touristry merchandise during the off extremum season Malta presently depends to a great extent on the summer mass-tourism Sun. sea and sand market. During the summer its visitant Numberss are making capacity. Attention needs to be given to cut downing seasonality through farther development. instruction and selling of the other installations and attractive forces that Malta have to offer. promoting bing summer visitants and possible new visitants to remain during off-peak season. This would profit the local economic system and the local people through full clip employment. if the visitant Numberss are spread throughout the twelvemonth. local people would besides non hold the issue with overcrowding of local attractive forces. Finally the natural resources would besides be better off if demand during the summer was less.
3. 3 Water and waste betterments Water supply and waste direction systems need to be addressed
The sewage system needs to be addressed. presently most of wastewaters into the marine environment. which continues to hold a damaging consequence on the environment every bit good as wellness menaces to people utilizing the sea. Littering. noise. clean H2O. deficiency of verdure and unfastened infinites are among the factors that have an impact of Malta’s natural heritage and negatively act upon the fight of the overall Maltese merchandise. If these affairs are improved the experience for the tourer would be enhanced and the quality of life of the Maltese people would be enriched. Both are indispensable to prolong the current touristry industry. and looking frontward. these systems need to be invested in. if the touristry industry is to go on to turn.
4. Conclusion Mass touristry can non go on in Malta. as it has in other Mediterranean finishs. who have more infinite and resources to back up such visitant Numberss. Maltese Tourism must happen a balance between increased touristry Numberss with the demands of the local occupants and the environment. so traveling forward it becomes more sustainable. Making better topographic points for people to populate in and for people to see. ( The Cape Town Declaration. 2002 ) .