Abstract – This paper represents the
concept of major material handling systems known as Automated Guided Vehicle
(AGV), a robotic vehicle that can be accessed using wireless communication. It
can be used to deliver materials from supply area to the technician. AGV
travels along the virtual path provided to it using computers. Hence, this
requires less human intervention and manual control. Also, to avoid collision
with human workers, a proximity detector can be added which causes the robot to
stop when an obstacle is detected in its way. The human errors have a negative
effect on safety, efficiency and quality. These effects can be reduced using
Automated Guided Vehicle, AGV.
Index Terms – Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV), Radio Frequency (RF), docking, ATmega 16,
in manufacturing technology allows companies to rapidly produce products. This
has a provoked trend to reduce bulk inventory in favor of short term supplies.
Improvement in product handling and speed can be achieved with the
implementation of an Automated Guided Vehicle, AGV. With the help of computers, the AGV can achieve
safe as well as high speeds. It is flexible in high rate due to remote
communication. Its ability to communicate with other autonomous vehicles
provides a seamless operation. The AGV can also detect the objects in its path.
Increased product turn-around and faster shipping results in satisfied
customers. More number of AGVs results in a very efficient team work and can be
very useful in various industries. Also, it creates a better working
environment. AGV models are developed as a prototype for implementing and
evaluating algorithms proposed.
The AGV system using wireless
communication is designed for mobile transportation of materials in industries
by defining a virtual path and image processing so that speed and accuracy in
moving objects will increase. An important advantage of this prototype is that
the idea here is to provide a virtual path, which does not require any further
human monitoring until the task is finished. Many other sensors can be used
into this to detect the various payload conditions etc.
handling systems used in manufacturing are automated guided vehicles (AGVs) or
mobile robots. Accordingly the speed of motors is controlled and
thus mobile robot is made to follow the predetermined path. To turn, one wheel
is stopped while opposite wheel continues to turn. The position of a robot is
obtained from infrared sensor data. 6
on AGV till today, focus on the functions of AGV on moving materials and
products. They also aim at finding optimal paths for AGV, routes are designed
to avoid collision and deadlocks. The AGV prototype has been developed to create
a framework for a co-ordinate environment providing most efficient mode of
transferring many types of materials in and out of a factory or manufacture
automated vehicles should have the ability to drive safe and smooth in
traffics. Path tracking, steering, obstacle avoidance and traffic laws must be
considered in the driving goals. Some ethical principles are designed to
prevent vehicle from causing harm to humans, damage to itself or other objects
or from violating traffic rules. Also the vehicle must be able to handle the
situation like if an obstacle appears in the path, it must deviate. Obstacle
avoidance has a high priority in roadways 2.
defined as the arrival and stopping a position relative to other object. Also
it includes positioning of vehicle or equipment onboard the relative vehicle to
other object. The docking stage was started by introducing a target between the
current mobile robot position and the final target location. The design also
faces control problems like collision and deadlock along with guide-path
routing. To solve collision problems, sensors are attached with the vehicle.
position can be gathered by the data obtained by the Infra-Red (IR) sensors. A
sensor controller can be used to keep the AGV on the track. Also, additional IR
sensors can be used on front and side of the vehicle to detect obstacles and stations
respectively. Unless the obstacle from the path is removed, the AGV stops and
whenever it restarts after stopping, it recalls its operation 3.
In industries, we have seen that
a large number of workers are required to shift heavy loads from one place to
other. This takes a lot of time as well as a lot of human labor. In order to
make the work easier, line following robots as well as vehicles is created
following the orders and works according to the instructions given to them.
As more and more research went on, technology increased and new
modifications were done on these vehicles. Till today, the AGVs developed used
to follow the path on the floor. It is now modified as the vehicle which
follows the virtual path given to it through devices like computers or laptops.
Through wireless communication, the user can instruct the AGV where it must go.
Fig.1. System Block Diagram
A. Operation of the AGV
Vehicles designed are capable of following a given virtual path for moving the
materials safely in manufacturing units. The system block diagram has two
sections :- Transmitter and Receiver.
By capturing the image using webcam, it is to
be viewed on the machine. Virtual path of the AGV is to be given using the
Computer. Data is then converted from USB to serial using PL2303 driver. This
serial data is then transferred from the RF transmitter to the RF receiver
A 5V power supply
is designed for the controller and other components. A controller from the AVR
family, ATmega-16 is used to instruct the AGV about the directions. IR sensors
are placed for the purpose of obstacle detection in the path. Motors are connected
with the controller using the motor driver, L293D. The LCD displays the
directions given to the prototype.