R. Ambedkar has enormouscontribution for the India. He was the voice of the unrepresented peoples, Hopeof the Hopeless and light for those who were in dimness and also a support forthose who were really support-less and destitute or oppressed in society.
Dr.Ambedkar had a very clear stand point for well-being of weaker section ofcommunity. He was the leader who fought for socially backward classes andothers.
Ambedkar was a quarry of caste discrimination himself as he was born inthe Hindu Mahar caste, which was viewed as “untouchable” by the upper class.That gave him power to be strong and work for other backward classes by theeducation, publishing newspapers and journals and organised conference for themfor their up-liftment. He wants to spread awareness backward class for theirpolitical rights and that’s why he demanded the separate electoral right fromBritish Government. That made a direct confrontation with Gandhi ji who wasalso a strong critic of caste and untouchability but against the separateelectoral. Dr. Ambedkar has always been a fountainhead of great inspiration forsecularism, national esteem, self-reliance and eradication of the social evilslike untouchability and caste restrictions. Ambedkar also struggled for Women’sempowerment. Their main reasoning is that gender relations are artificiallybuilt under Hindu social order, not the attitude of Hindus towards their women,but also the conditions for women to confirm a conservative feminine behaviour.
He challenged ideological foundation of graded system of caste hierarchy thatdenied equality freedom and dignity to women in Indian society. He suggest theBuddha’s peaceful path for everyone because of the old and irrelevant ritual ofreligion. Keywords: – Gender, Hindu social order, Caste or Untouchability,Feminine discourse and Development Objectives and Method This paper is an endeavour to giveextensive and closer analytical insight in to the view of Dr. Ambedkar towardsempowerment of women in Indian society. This paper also elucidate the problemsfacing by the women in the pre and post Independent India and how they weretreat by modern Indian democratic society.
Present paper based on Secondarydata collected from the Government documents, published papers, books, Researchs,speeches by Dr. Ambedkar in Indian Parliament, various conference and meetingsin pre and post independent India, newspapers and internet. Introduction Dr. Bhim rao Ambedkar iswell-known for many things. Primarily, he is grasped as one who rose from theso-called untouchable caste to become one of the most extremely educated men inIndia, and moreover one of the key draftsmen of democratic India’sconstitution.
In education, societal reformation and the rescinding of thecaste system, he was one of the most prominent voices. His battling spirit hascarved out a habitation of great significance in contemporary India’s antiquity.This biographical outline of Dr.
Babasahib Ambedkar is mainly meant to apprise the people with the life,thoughts and deeds of one of the most memorable sons of India; and also, inmomentary, give them an idea of the several forces which designed and defined hislife. “Buddha stood forsocial freedom, intellectual freedom, economic freedom and political freedom.He taught equality, equality not between man and man only but between man andwoman.””Buddha’s teachingscover almost every aspect of the social life of the people, his doctrines aremodern and his main concern was to ensure salvation to man during his life onearth and not after his death.”Dr. B. R AmbedkarAmong the galaxy of philosophersin modern India, Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891-1956) stands on a platformquite different from others and is accepted not only as a Dalit leader or onlya ‘constitution maker’ but also as a ‘nation builder’, a ‘human rightschampion’, and ‘Global Icon’.
Status of women in early IndiaDr. B. R Ambedkar started hismovement 1920 with the propaganda against the Hindu social order and launched ajournal “Mook Nayak” 1920 and “Bahiskrit Bharat” 1927 for women. Ambedkar’sobservation of women question, highlighting their right to education, equaltreatment with men, right to property and participation in the politicalprocess resembled the global feminists demand. In 1928 Women’s associationfounded in Bombay with Ramabai wife of Dr. Ambedkar’s as a president ofassociation. Radhabai Vadale addressed a press conference in 1931 for theencouragement for women’s when she said “It is better to die a hundred timesthan live a life full of humiliation.
Ambedkar said that whatever is written in”manuscript” why only Impose on women’s. Because of that there is no political,social and economical right for women in society. The Girl or women and alsoold lady cannot do anything independently in society.
Dr Ambedkar believed inthe strength of women and their role in the procedure of societaltransformation. The historic “Mahad Satyagraha” witnessed involvementof three hundred women along with their male counterparts. Dr. Ambedkar saidthat, “I measure the improvement of community by the degree of growth whichwomen had accomplished. Let every girl who marries stand by her husband, claimto be her husband’s friend and equal, and refuse to be his slave.” In 1942 as alabour minister of Executive Council of Governor General, Dr. B R Ambedkarlaunched the Hindu Code Bill in the Parliament.
In the favour of this Bill Dr. Ambedkarsaid, “I should like draw Attention of the House toone important fact. TheGreat Political Philosopher Burke who wrote his great Book against the FrenchRevolution said that those who want to preserve must be ready to repair. Andall am asking this houseis: if you want to maintain the Hindu System, Hindu Cultureand Hindu Society, do not hesitates or repair where repair is necessary. Thisbill asks for nothing more than to repair those parts of the Hindu System whichhave become dilapidated”. The bill Classify and Reform the Hindu Laws on SevenDifferent matters (I) Right to Property (II) Marriage Law (III) Divorce (IV)Adaption (v) the order of succession among different hires to the Property of adeceased dying in State (VI) the Law of Maintenance (VII) Minorityguardianship. The bill faced heavily opposed from Hindu orthodoxical society soDr. Ambedkar resigned from the Union Cabinet.
Dr. Ambedkar spent his life forthe better reclamation of women even who involved in bad practices andprofessionals like prostitutions. The greatest example of it was seen inKamathipura.
David the person who left mediated work of brothel by teaching andthoughts of Dr. Ambedkar and also evoked all the prostitutes for left the workand live the life of honour. In the Manu Smriti, Manu not only shows humiliationfor women but goes on to degrade them as slaves, devoid of intellect; deniesthem the right of education and the right to property; and forbids them fromperforming sacrifices.Dr.
Ambedkar tried an adequateinclusion of women’s right in the political vocabulary and constitutionof India. i.e.
,Article14 – Equal rights andopportunities in political, economic and social spheres.Article 15 prohibitsdiscrimination on the ground of sex.Article 15(3) enables affirmativediscrimination in favour of women.Article 39 – Equal means oflivelihood and equal pay for equal work.Article 42 – Human conditions ofwork and maternity relief.Article 51 (A) (C) – Fundamentalduties to renounce practices, derogatory to the dignity of women.Article 46 – The state to promotewith special care, the educational and economic interests of weaker section ofpeople and to protect them fromsocial injustice and all forms of exploitation.
Article 47 – The state to raisethe level of nutrition and standard of living of its people and the improvementofpublic health and so on.Article 243D (3), 243T (3) &243R (4) provides for allocation of seats in the Panchayati Raj System. The Hindu Code Bill was later dividedin to four Bills, and the same were put on the Statue Book by Parliament.
TheHindu Marriage Act, 1955; The Hindu Succession Act, 1956; The Hindu Minorityand Guardianship Act, 1956 and The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 arethe four enactments which incorporate the ideas and principles of Hindu CodeBill formulated by Dr Ambedkar. They give independent Dr B R Ambedkar and WomenEmpowerment in India. Page status to women and endow them with the right ofadoption, succession and property, so completely denied by Manu. Caste or UntouchabilityUntouchability means contaminationby the touch of certain persons by reason of their birth in a particular casteor family. It is believed that Untouchability is imposed on Indian Hindusociety and it is a social concept made by the customs and society.
Accordingto Manu smriti the classes, which are usually regarded, as untouchables areChamars, Dom, Halalkor, Mochi, Mushahar, Busadh, Hari. Although they were separatethe pole of Hindus society, which recognizes only four classes namely,Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishayas and Shudras, they were counted as part of theHindu society for political purposes (Kheer 1995: 1). According to the traditionalterminology, the caste Hindus are called Savarnas and the untouchables arecalled Avarnas (Ambedkar 1990: 114). There was also a thought that Anuntouchable’s touch defile anyone but an impure’s touch defile only theBrahmins. The Hindu society based on the chaturvarna and believes in Brahmins,Kshatriyas, Vaishayas and Shudras, after that who came called Antyaja they arenamely the basket, shoemakers, jugglers, and the sailors, fishermen, shieldmakers, the hunters of wild animals and of birds, and the weavers. They are notcounted amongst any caste, but only as members of a certain craft orprofession.
They produce various kinds of services to the caste Hindus. Thefour caste indus do not live together with them in one place (Ambedkar 1990:147). Today’s dalits a group of peoplecalled the broken men in past. It was in this critical situation that thesettled communities and the broken men compromised that they do work of watchand ward for the settled tribes and the settled tribes agreed to provide themfood and home for living.
They also decided that they shall live outside and notenter in the village. Dr. Ambedkar in BuddhismOn May 24 1956, Ambedkar formally declared in Bombay thathe would become a Buddhist.
He stated that he wasworking on a book (which would be published posthumously), titled The Buddhaand his Dhamma, and said that through it, he had come to realize that Buddhismwas a religion that promoted equality. It directed man inwards, to find thetrue potential that lies hidden within. The emergence of Buddhism and beefeating are said to be the cause of the origin of untouchability. Ambedkar didnot have many evidences to prove.
The people who faced many problems incasteism in Hindu religion they embraced the Buddhism. A large numbers ofpeople changed into the Buddhism and Brahmins started hated both of them thebroken men and Buddhist. ‘Annihilation of Caste’ is one of the prime monographspublished by Ambedkar aimed at clarifying the exploitative nature of caste andcalling for its annihilation in order to secure a social order based on equalstatus and dignity for all.