Abstract departments of Punjab environmental protection agency, local

                                                      

 Abstract

        Air quality
in Pakistan has reached at critical level which creates smog every year. Smog
is the mixture of dust particles in the air cause of different diseases and low
visibility create many problems for citizens. Government of Pakistan develops
policies to control smog. The implementation of policies and systems is highly
required. The unavailability of data is difficult to control pollution. The study
introduces problems and changes of environmental conditions including brief
explanation of policy mechanism. Study in the research field of science and technology
will bring new ways to understand pollution problem.

 

Introduction

In recent years low visibility due to smog has
experienced in Punjab between November to February each year for an average of
10 to 25 days p.p. Smog is polluted fog because of impurities in air. Air
pollution is big cause high smog in Pakistan as well as in India. It spread
from Delhi to Faisalabad and beyond. Smog covers mostly Punjab area in
Pakistan. Government of the Punjab environmental protection department met the
air quality standards.

Growing demand of energy is the cause of pollution and
has a burden on the ecosystem. The national environmental policy provides a
framework for solving environmental issues which cause of smog.n.p.

Nation environmental policy make progress and set the
strategy, action plan, environmental related policies helps the government to
understand the environmental concerns to control increasing pollution in
Pakistan.

Air pollution control, need a team work effort for a long
time by multiple agencies p.p. primary and secondary health, information
departments of Punjab  environmental
protection agency, local government, industries home, agriculture and  education environment protection are evolved
for the implementation of policy over all the region.

Pakistan is developing country and take part in the
change of world’s climate using multiple types of energy sources as fuel for
different usage where coal present a major part of primary energy source. New
circumstances increase the use of energy like private car or motor bike
ownership.

The recent data of world health organization shows the
unhealthy air quality index. There is no proper data for monitoring air quality
neither in Lahore nor in Pakistan.

World widely this issue take seriously to control the
changes in climate due to different types of pollution. air pollution is one of
the most dangerous type because we breath in air is  unhealthy which causes of breath issues as
well as bring many other diseases also like eye infections.

China is key element in climate change because it is consuming
carbon dioxide at very large range. China is also a developing country and
depend upon fossil fuel c.p. China highlights the problems and issues and
apply different framework and implement legislations which helps to improve and
control air pollution, which also control smog in urban areas.

A project started to monitor the air quality in Lahore by
making different monitoring stations GAIA A12. These are not much expensive
like the traditional monitoring stations.

The current research is the latest research agenda for
technological studies to prevent and control of smog in multiple cities in Pakistan
under the Punjab policy on controlling smog 2017.

Related work:

 

Air quality
warning systems in Pakistan:

                                                                              
In Pakistan there is no any proper network or system to control
pollution and smog prevention.  Air
quality of Lahore has need attention to unhealthy air quality index average of 68 µg/m3 of PM2.5. Monitoring stations are
built to setup an air quality monitoring network. That will broadcast free
hourly reading for different locations in Lahore. This network is started with
few devices and will be implemented in other cities later e.g  Gaia A11, Gaia A12 and Gaia A12 GSM are used.

Pakistan environment protection  agency facilitate different  research work on pollution and carried out
different research in various  pollution
fields to provide support to monitoring stations. These stations provide
warning related to smog for controlling the possible danger for citizens .Modern
software can be used to prevent the climate connecting with satellite reading.

Hourly Average Ambient
Concentrations of Air Pollutants in

Pakistani Cities in 2000

.

            Item                                                                         
Lahore         Rawalpindi         Islamabad

Lahore Rawalpindi Islamabad

PM10 hourly average data in
?g/m3                   895.00                  709.00                       520.00

SO2 hourly average data in
ppb                           44.60                   30.70                         28.50

CO hourly average data in
ppm                           2.82                      1.83                           1.55

NOx hourly average data in
ppb                          156.60                 74.70                         148.50

O3 hourly average data in
ppb                             8.50                      17.00                         10.00

Source: Pakistan       
EPA/JICA, 2001.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Air quality legislations:

                                The act
“Environmental Protection Act, 1997” was extended in all around Pakistan. The
purpose of this act is protection of all species, control environmental
pollution, improvement of environment, improve the system of drainage

Pakistan starts to take action on controlling pollution
in 1983s. After this act environmental protection from pollution take seriously
as national level. This law meets all the pollution challenges. Act of
environmental legislation was implemented in 1973.

Increasing pollution is great challenge in the form of smog
which is the result of all polluted material. The act was applied in 1997 is
the baseline of environmental law of Pakistan.(L of p).According to the act of
1997 many agencies perform their duties to control environmental pollution
which are causes of smog. Agencies are Pakistan environmental protection and
federal agency provincial environment also exist in all provinces of Pakistan.

In 2017 government of Punjab apply policy of controlling
smog in Punjab. The purpose of this policy is to fight with smog in province of
Punjab which mostly affects the Lahore and its surrounding areas

Punjab policy on
controlling smog:

                                                              Punjab
government make a policy and action to prevent and control extreme weather
conditions of smog in province 2017.p.p. Reasons behind the smog prevention
are to control road side accidents, protection of public and develop awareness.
This policy is under the 1997 law. Policy highlight the excess use of fuel at
commercial and domestic level, And protection action taken by all the related
department. Advisory issued to related departments ( Health care department and
traffic department on the use of roads).

The policy makes a long term plan and mentions the
responsibilities of all the departments.

Reduce the use of sulpher fuel at the acceptable level. Standard
vehicles used to protect pollution.

Vehicle fuel has nitrogen, oxides of sulpher, and carbon
monoxide which are big cause of photo chemical smog. A batter traffic
management which aware people to use alternate of fuel vehicles. And mostly use
public traffic. Avoid crop burning which is count a major air pollutant.
Monitor air quality frequently. Make environment green around the cities. Industry
waste management and build new one far from the populated areas. Smog is a
issue which can be solved by reducing all pollution types.

Government checks the implementation of the policy and
information from the related department.

Problems:

                     Particulate matter
control:

                                            
Particulate matter is particles 100 times thinner than human hair which
are found in the air in the form of dust, dirt, smoke. And liquid drops. PM 2.5
is a greater risk to humans because it affects human health badly specially
lungs and repository diseases. This also causes pre mature death. Complexity of
prevention and control air pollution depends on PM2.5. primary pollutants are
nitrogen oxides and sulpher PM is secondary pollutant which occurs due to energy
structures, climate conditions, and living habits off whole nation. Command and
control approach can be used for pollution management under official plans.

Data:

      In Pakistan
departments work on prevention and controlling air pollution but still; faces
problems in the dimension of information, quality management and proper policy
making and the credibility of data. Systems are affected by political issues in
Pakistan. to access and understand the wide level of air pollution is a
challenge not for public but scientific community also. Raw monitoring data is
difficult because of no proper network for data collection. The existing
systems need more improvements for the credibility of data.

   Public awareness
play important role in controlling pollution. Information can be broadcast
using media.

Discussion:

           For
prevention and control air pollution which cause of smog is the pivot of
research globally in the field of science and technology. The study is the
intersection between environmental policies, scientific knowledge and public
engagement. Research includes environmental modeling, involvement of
departments, and the research agenda is based on policy implementations. Limited
data on pollution is available in Pakistan. The present data is collected on ad
hoc studies on air quality which shows the above use of nitrogen oxides and
particulate matter according to WHO guidelines. Pakistan environmental
protection agency is in corporate with Japan international corporation agency
in 2000 to get initial data on air pollution. Data collected using Mobil
stations that measure hourly of the air pollutants from 700 to 2400. It was
collected on different days with different months in 2000. Pollution control by
implementation of planned approach.