Abstract Air qualityin Pakistan has reached at critical level which creates smog every year. Smogis the mixture of dust particles in the air cause of different diseases and lowvisibility create many problems for citizens. Government of Pakistan developspolicies to control smog.
The implementation of policies and systems is highlyrequired. The unavailability of data is difficult to control pollution. The studyintroduces problems and changes of environmental conditions including briefexplanation of policy mechanism.
Study in the research field of science and technologywill bring new ways to understand pollution problem. IntroductionIn recent years low visibility due to smog hasexperienced in Punjab between November to February each year for an average of10 to 25 days p.p. Smog is polluted fog because of impurities in air. Airpollution is big cause high smog in Pakistan as well as in India. It spreadfrom Delhi to Faisalabad and beyond. Smog covers mostly Punjab area inPakistan.
Government of the Punjab environmental protection department met theair quality standards.Growing demand of energy is the cause of pollution andhas a burden on the ecosystem. The national environmental policy provides aframework for solving environmental issues which cause of smog.n.
p.Nation environmental policy make progress and set thestrategy, action plan, environmental related policies helps the government tounderstand the environmental concerns to control increasing pollution inPakistan.Air pollution control, need a team work effort for a longtime by multiple agencies p.
p. primary and secondary health, informationdepartments of Punjab environmentalprotection agency, local government, industries home, agriculture and education environment protection are evolvedfor the implementation of policy over all the region. Pakistan is developing country and take part in thechange of world’s climate using multiple types of energy sources as fuel fordifferent usage where coal present a major part of primary energy source.
Newcircumstances increase the use of energy like private car or motor bikeownership.The recent data of world health organization shows theunhealthy air quality index. There is no proper data for monitoring air qualityneither in Lahore nor in Pakistan.World widely this issue take seriously to control thechanges in climate due to different types of pollution. air pollution is one ofthe most dangerous type because we breath in air is unhealthy which causes of breath issues aswell as bring many other diseases also like eye infections.
China is key element in climate change because it is consumingcarbon dioxide at very large range. China is also a developing country anddepend upon fossil fuel c.p. China highlights the problems and issues andapply different framework and implement legislations which helps to improve andcontrol air pollution, which also control smog in urban areas.A project started to monitor the air quality in Lahore bymaking different monitoring stations GAIA A12. These are not much expensivelike the traditional monitoring stations.The current research is the latest research agenda fortechnological studies to prevent and control of smog in multiple cities in Pakistanunder the Punjab policy on controlling smog 2017.Related work: Air qualitywarning systems in Pakistan: In Pakistan there is no any proper network or system to controlpollution and smog prevention.
Airquality of Lahore has need attention to unhealthy air quality index average of 68 µg/m3 of PM2.5. Monitoring stations arebuilt to setup an air quality monitoring network.
That will broadcast freehourly reading for different locations in Lahore. This network is started withfew devices and will be implemented in other cities later e.g Gaia A11, Gaia A12 and Gaia A12 GSM are used. Pakistan environment protection agency facilitate different research work on pollution and carried outdifferent research in various pollutionfields to provide support to monitoring stations. These stations providewarning related to smog for controlling the possible danger for citizens .
Modernsoftware can be used to prevent the climate connecting with satellite reading.Hourly Average AmbientConcentrations of Air Pollutants inPakistani Cities in 2000. Item Lahore Rawalpindi IslamabadLahore Rawalpindi IslamabadPM10 hourly average data in?g/m3 895.00 709.00 520.
00SO2 hourly average data inppb 44.60 30.70 28.
50CO hourly average data inppm 2.82 1.83 1.55NOx hourly average data inppb 156.60 74.70 148.50O3 hourly average data inppb 8.50 17.
00 10.00Source: Pakistan EPA/JICA, 2001. Air quality legislations: The act”Environmental Protection Act, 1997″ was extended in all around Pakistan. Thepurpose of this act is protection of all species, control environmentalpollution, improvement of environment, improve the system of drainagePakistan starts to take action on controlling pollutionin 1983s.
After this act environmental protection from pollution take seriouslyas national level. This law meets all the pollution challenges. Act ofenvironmental legislation was implemented in 1973. Increasing pollution is great challenge in the form of smogwhich is the result of all polluted material. The act was applied in 1997 isthe baseline of environmental law of Pakistan.(L of p).
According to the act of1997 many agencies perform their duties to control environmental pollutionwhich are causes of smog. Agencies are Pakistan environmental protection andfederal agency provincial environment also exist in all provinces of Pakistan.In 2017 government of Punjab apply policy of controllingsmog in Punjab. The purpose of this policy is to fight with smog in province ofPunjab which mostly affects the Lahore and its surrounding areasPunjab policy oncontrolling smog: Punjabgovernment make a policy and action to prevent and control extreme weatherconditions of smog in province 2017.p.
p. Reasons behind the smog preventionare to control road side accidents, protection of public and develop awareness.This policy is under the 1997 law.
Policy highlight the excess use of fuel atcommercial and domestic level, And protection action taken by all the relateddepartment. Advisory issued to related departments ( Health care department andtraffic department on the use of roads).The policy makes a long term plan and mentions theresponsibilities of all the departments.Reduce the use of sulpher fuel at the acceptable level. Standardvehicles used to protect pollution.Vehicle fuel has nitrogen, oxides of sulpher, and carbonmonoxide which are big cause of photo chemical smog. A batter trafficmanagement which aware people to use alternate of fuel vehicles. And mostly usepublic traffic.
Avoid crop burning which is count a major air pollutant.Monitor air quality frequently. Make environment green around the cities. Industrywaste management and build new one far from the populated areas. Smog is aissue which can be solved by reducing all pollution types.Government checks the implementation of the policy andinformation from the related department.
Problems: Particulate mattercontrol: Particulate matter is particles 100 times thinner than human hair whichare found in the air in the form of dust, dirt, smoke. And liquid drops. PM 2.5is a greater risk to humans because it affects human health badly speciallylungs and repository diseases. This also causes pre mature death. Complexity ofprevention and control air pollution depends on PM2.5.
primary pollutants arenitrogen oxides and sulpher PM is secondary pollutant which occurs due to energystructures, climate conditions, and living habits off whole nation. Command andcontrol approach can be used for pollution management under official plans.Data: In Pakistandepartments work on prevention and controlling air pollution but still; facesproblems in the dimension of information, quality management and proper policymaking and the credibility of data. Systems are affected by political issues inPakistan. to access and understand the wide level of air pollution is achallenge not for public but scientific community also. Raw monitoring data isdifficult because of no proper network for data collection. The existingsystems need more improvements for the credibility of data. Public awarenessplay important role in controlling pollution.
Information can be broadcastusing media.Discussion: Forprevention and control air pollution which cause of smog is the pivot ofresearch globally in the field of science and technology. The study is theintersection between environmental policies, scientific knowledge and publicengagement. Research includes environmental modeling, involvement ofdepartments, and the research agenda is based on policy implementations. Limiteddata on pollution is available in Pakistan.
The present data is collected on adhoc studies on air quality which shows the above use of nitrogen oxides andparticulate matter according to WHO guidelines. Pakistan environmentalprotection agency is in corporate with Japan international corporation agencyin 2000 to get initial data on air pollution. Data collected using Mobilstations that measure hourly of the air pollutants from 700 to 2400. It wascollected on different days with different months in 2000. Pollution control byimplementation of planned approach.