Abstract: – Electrical energy is the most common and widely used type ofenergy in the world. Energy conservation refers to reducing energy consumptionthrough using less of an energy service. The subject of energy conservation isa concern for most energy users particularly at domestic.
Energy conservationbecomes even more important for the common people (middle class sector) becauseof rising energy cost and this is because of limitable availability of resource(non-renewable energy).In this paper, the application of Energy conservationtechniques by which electrical energy can be saved and made cost efficient fromthe perspective are presented for a home as well as laboratory in our college. Sofor saving the electric energy for whole world, first start from your home. Keyword:- limitations for energy resources, energy consuming products, star ratingproducts, tariff, and ghost consumer. IntroductionWe depend on electricalenergy for almost everything in our life. We desire to build our life morecomfortable and for that we take the help of different devices and this useselectrical energy but at the same time we don’t realize that we have started squanderingit, So for that energy conservation is important.This can be done by using less of an energyservice (by reducing the demand). This can be achieved either by using energymore efficiently (using less energy for a constant service) or by reducing theamount of services used (for example, instead of using light at home, makingmaximum use of daylight).
Energy conservation reduces the need for energyservices, and can result in increased environmental quality and higher saving.It also reduces the consumption of energy for the same level of activity. Energy efficient measures the differencebetween how much energy is used to provide the same level of comfort,performance by the same type of product. A combination of both energyconservation and energy efficiency measures yield an ideal solution. Hard facts on why energy conservation isimportant are below: · We use energy faster than it can beproduce-coal, oil and natural gas (the most utilized source can take thousandsof years to form).· Energy resources are limited – India has approximately 1% ofworld’s energy resources.· Most of the energy sources we use cannot bereuse and renewed non-renewable sources constitute 80% of fuel use. It is saidthat our energy resources may last only for another 40 years or so.
· Energy saving would also lead in decrease ofpollution.Conservation of energyat various levels· Energy conservation at domestic level· Energy conservation at community level· Energy conservation at industrial level Ø Energy conservation at community level: I. All unnecessary lights should be turn off epically whenconference room etc. are not in use II.
Computers andother equipment’s should be set to their energy saving modeØ Energy conservation in industrial level: I. Energy audition II. Process softening III. Minimizing light loadØ Energy conservation at domestic level: I. Energy preservation in major appliances II.
Energy auditing III. Energy conservation by using appropriate rating of appliances based on your need. Energy consuming products at home1. Airconditioner2. Tubelight3. Bulb4.
Exhaustfan 5. Tablefan6. Washingmachine7. Refrigerator8. Television9. Electricgeyser10. Computer11. Residentialflour mill12.
Microwave oven Calculating tariff forsplit air conditioner (1ton) (forsummer season)Code no.-AR12FC5UAEB-1200 BTUIt consumes 1200 watts of power per hours Running time of AC: – 6 to 8 hours a day.`. 1200 * 8 = 9600 watts (9.6 kWh)Number of days AC is use (ex. May: -31 days).`.
9.6 * 31 = 297.6 kWh/monthCharges for per unit consumed = 5.40 rupees.`.
297.6 * 5.40 = 1,607 rupees/month Calculating tariff fortube light1 tube light consumes 40 watt power per hourNumber of tube light: – 3 tube light..`. 40 * 3 = 120 wattUsage time per day: – 4 hours.`. 120 * 4 = 480(0.
48 kWh)Number of day’s tube light is used: – 31days .`. 0.48 * 31 = 14.88 kWh/monthsCharges for per unit consumed = 5.
40 rupeesTariff category LT I (B)-Residential Units/Month: – 101 to 300.`. 14.88 * 5.
40 = 80.352 rupees/month Techniques for energyconservation for some productsFor AC· Buy the correct size equipment to meet your family’s need – anoversized air conditioner unit will waste energy · Keep the ac lower at night· Use window or portable units· Service your units· Adjust your furniture(so that it does not block the air flow) · Turn off light (helps in reducing heat)· Use fan to circulate cool air · An external OFF timer circuit could be set which would help toturn off your AC before you wake up. This timer is connected between supplyswitch and your AC. (1200* 31 = 37.2 kWh , 37.2* 5.
40 = 200.88 rupees) For tube light & bulb· Led tube light can be used .it only use 20 watt. (50 to 55% lessthan usual tube light)· Led bulb can be used.· Use task lighting (table and desktop lamps )instead of roomlighting · Use electronic chokes in place of conventional copper chokes (itreduces 2 to 3% use of electricity)For fans (ceiling, exhaust, table) · Efficient fans can be used and for restrooms exhaust fans couldbe rewired with light so fans operate only when lights are turned on· Turn fans on only when you’re home and using rooms in whichthey’re located· Install energy star celling fans, which on average circulate airwith 20% more efficiency than non-certified modelsFor washing machine· Run full loads· Buy a front-loading machine · Use cold water rather than hot waterFor refrigerator· Minimize door opening as much as possible· Defrost your refrigerator regularly· Turn on refrigerator’s “energy saver” switch· Keep your refrigerator away from heat sources, such as ovendishwasher and direct sunlight from a window · Check the door seal(gasket) on the refrigerator· Buy energy star qualified refrigerator models only· Energy star qualified refrigerators use at least 15% less energyFor computers/laptop· Buy a laptop instead of a desktop, if practical – saves 5%energy· Use sleep – mode when not in use helps cut energy cost byapproximately 40%· If you buy a desktop, get an led screen instead of an outdateCRT· Laser printers use more electricity than inkjet printersThe most importantGhost consumer · Identify the ‘ghost consumer’ which consume power –but becausethey are plugged in and are in stand-by mode· The TV consumes 10 watt power when it is in stand-by modeEx.
TV is in stand-by mode for 10 hours a day.Energyconsumption /day =10* 10 = 100 watts (0.1 kWh)Energyconsumption/month =1* 100 * 30 = 3000 watts (3 kWh)Energyconsumption in rupees =3* 5.40 = 16.
2 rupees/month· The TV consumes 5 watt power when we don’t plug out from switchboard (20 rupees/month)· The cell phone charger uses 3 watt per hour when plugged· Mosquito mats consumes 5 watts per hour· If you use an electric geyser, do not leave it in thermostatmode, for it causes standing losses of 1- 1.5 units. Calculationfor our laboratoryNumber of led = 15Energy consumed by each led = 25.2 wattUsage time per day = 8 hours.
`. 25.2 * 8 = 121.6 (0.1216 kWh)Number of day = 310.1216 * 31 = 3.77 kWh/month Techniques forreducing powerLight intensitysensor measures brightness of light and according to that it change its resistancethe resistance of a CdS cell is inversely proportional to the amount of lightfalling on it.
If bright light is falling on the sensor the led’s will lowerthe intensity and if lower intensity light is falling on sensor the led’s willblow bright.