Abstract—The in the resolution. The appearance and utility

Abstract—The main aim of paper is to analyse and design the low cost 3D printer which will print the three dimensional objects. The machine produces different products with different material. A 3D printer can make anything from ceramic cups to plastic objects, metal machine parts, stone vases, and even human body parts. 3D printing is a type of additive manufacturing process where a three dimensional object is made by layering down successive layers of material to form the final object. Additive process or  subractive process is used for 3D printing. 3D printing is therefore different from traditional machining techniques which mostly rely on extraction of materials such as cutting or drilling. The ability to print parts or components which are made from distinct materials from various mechanical and physical properties in a single build process is offered. This is the most basic function of it, but there are many technical glitches in the designing of the current generation low cost printer. The printed object can be fragile, delaminated due to low quality resolution of printing, this paper will highlight and gives methodology/techniques to overcome issue. It will help in overall increase in capacity of it with increase in the resolution. The appearance and utility of the final product is provided by current models which are closely emulated by the advanced 3D printing technologies.Keywords: 3D Printer, Masking, Ceramic, AdaptiveINTRODUCTION3D printers have enjoyed a significant price decrease over the last several years. A handful of companies and organizations have led the charge, developing finely tuned “desktop” versions of the previously industrial-sized machines. These companies have largely made 3D printers affordable and practical for consumers – consumers who continue to find creative & valuable uses for 3D printing today, even as this emerging technology continues to evolve.Why is 3D printing important? Simply put, it has the ability to transform consumerism. By empowering people to build their goods, Unprecedented customization and a significant shift in manufacturing power is possible. The technology is here to stay, and will only become more commonplace as it continues to be refined.LITERATURE SURVEY 3D printing technology-based an amphibious spherical   robot:It has long been recognized that the employment of underwater robots have important practical significance, which includes pipe survey, oceanic search, under-ice exploration, mine reconnaissance, dam inspection, ocean survey and so on. owing to the limitation of underwater environment, some regular sized robots are not suitable for limited spaces. thus some micro-robots appeared, while sacrificed important abilities such as locomotion velocity and enduring time to achieve compact sizes. then a mother-son robot system was proposed in our previous researches, which included several micro-robots as sons and an amphibious spherical robot as the mother. the mother robot was adopted to make up for the shortages of micro robots. this paper mainly focused on the structure and mechanism of the mother robot. the mother robot was designed with a spherical structure, which was composed of a fixed hemisphere hull and two operable quarter spherical hulls. it was actuated by four water-jet propellers and ten servomotors, capable of moving on land and in underwater environment. we developed a prototype and evaluated its walking and swimming motions in our previous experiments. due to some problems in the process of assembly, the motion stability and reliability performed not so well. so, in this paper, we improved the structure and mechanism of the robot based on 3d printing, which could eliminate some manufacture difficulties, shorten the production cycle, improve water-tightness, and enhance the robot’s overall stability, compactness and aesthetics.Achieving required performance, quality and reliability are key factors for the success and adoption of 3D printing technology in electronics manufacturing applications. This paper details the current status of 3D-Printing with regards different processes and technologies and their potential use for electronics manufacturing and packaging. The paper also presents design and modeling methodologies and toolsets and details how these can be used to understand material behavior during a 3D-printing process so that residual stress magnitudes can be minimized. The paper then provides a summary of the key challenges that need to be overcome before 3D-printing can become mainstream in the electronics industry.4In Ecuador there is a technological culture limited of Rapid Prototyping, which is being exploited to the maximum in other countries, especially in manufacturing, optimizing resources and time. Therefore, we have seen the need to design and build a 3D printer machine that can get plastic prototypes quickly and at low cost. This paper describes the design and construction of a 3D printer that can produce physical models in three-dimensional from a virtual model designed in CAD software for the Laboratory CNC of the University of the Armed Forces ESPE Extension Latacunga. The process starts from a digitized model of the appearance that the object should be reproduced, using free software is programmed the best strategy to follow the injector for printing model, the material extruded plastic state shall be deposited in the mobile platform applied layer by layer until the object has taken its final form. The machine consists of four mechanisms or axes: X, Y, Z form a mobile platform more the extruder mechanism, which has the function of extruding a plastic filament through a smelter. Control is via PC with free software and hardware, it will transform a 3D model programming language G code, before being sent to the controller, ordering the actuators move in speed and position on schedule. Additionally installed a control system and wireless monitoring, dispensing the need for a permanently connected to the machine PC. The prototype implemented and yielded excellent results obtained accurately models ? 0.1 mm. and resistance depending on the type of polymer used. Therefore it is possible to design and build a 3D printer using free software for prototyping and low-cost plastic parts.5Additive manufacturing is often referred to as 3D printing, as it works in a similar way to a laser printer. The technique builds a solid object from a series of layers – each one printed directly on top of the previous one. The raw material for ALM is a powder, which can be a thermo polymer or a metal; aluminum, stainless steel and titanium 6,4 are common. The printing chamber is generally heated to 10ºC below the melting point of the material – this ensures that the laser used to heat the powder can melt it quickly. For metals, this preheating eliminates residual stress from their processing, which can make them warp when welded. The machines’ operating software cuts the CAD model of the work piece into slices, whose thickness depends on the type of material used; CALM uses 0.1mm for polymers and 30 microns for metals. A blade mounted on a moving arm sweeps an even layer of the powder on top of the work surface inside the chamber, then a laser – generally around 200W – scans back and forth over the surface, melting the powder in the shape of the first layer. The work surface then drops by the thickness of the layer and another layer of powder is distributed over the surface. Other ALM machines use electron beams rather than lasers, as they are capable of transmitting more energy and therefore melt the powder faster. These machines work at room temperature, again speeding up the process. However, they produce pieces with a rougher surface finish that requires further machining and residual stress isn’t eliminated.1Wizardry is the right word, for a 3D printer can really create any three-dimensional object, no matter how complicated, that you can design in a computer. Chain-mail, the coats of interlinking rings that were worn by knights of old, provides a beautiful example. You might think that to make chain-mail you would need a lot of rings, which you then join painstakingly to neighboring rings, up and down, left and right. That’s how medieval armoires made them. A 3D printer can just print chain-mail, already all linked up; it emerges from the printer almost ready to wear. The underlying process is quite simple. Objects are built up inside the printer (commercial models are about the size of a domestic fridge), thin layer upon thin layer as a printer makes repeated passes, following a sliced-up blueprint provided by the computer. The 3D form grows upwards, at a rate of about 5cm (2 inches) an hour, until it is done. Different manufacturers have different approaches. Two leading companies, Z Corp and 3D Systems, offer a choice between powder and polymer as the material from which the object emerges. In either case, an inkjet printer creates the shape of the object, either by adding a glue to the powder, or by pumping out fine drops of polymer that are then cured by an ultra-violet lamp.Add a 3D scanner and you can reproduce real objects, including your own head. The scan takes a few seconds. Then just wait as a copy of your head gradually grows inside the printer.More serious uses for high-end machines include making models of buildings for architects, drug molecules for pharmaceutical companies and shoes for fashion companies. Extremely specialised machines can even print in titanium, using powdered titanium and an electron beam, making it possible to create usable one-off parts for aeroplanes and F1 racing cars. There is talk of machines that will print from powdered gold and shake up the jewellery-design business. But the real fun will come as ordinary folk at home feel free to let their creativity run wild. If you can imagine it, you can make it.21The World’s Smallest 3D PrinterA research project at the Vienna University of Technology (TU Vienna) could turn futuristic 3D-printers into affordable everyday items. Printers, which can produce three-dimensional objects have been available for years. However, at the Vienna University of Technology, a printing device has now been developed, which is much smaller, lighter and cheaper than ordinary 3D-printers. With this kind of printer, everyone could produce small, taylor-made 3D-objects at home, using building plans from the internet – and this could save money for expensive custom-built spare parts Several scientific fields have to come together, to design a 3D-printer. The device was assembled by mechanical engineers in the research group of professor Jürgen Stampfl, but also the chemical research by the team of professor Robert Liska was of crucial importance: first, chemists have to determine which special kinds of synthetic material can be used for printing.Layer for LayerThe basic principle of the 3D-printer is quite simple: The desired object is printed in a small tub filled with synthetic resin. The resin has a very special property: It hardens precisely where it is illuminated with intense beams of light. Layer for layer, the synthetic resin is irradiated at exactly the right spots. When one layer hardens, the next layer can be attached to it, until the object is completed. This method is called “additive manufacturing technology”. “This way, we can even produce complicated geometrical objects with an intricate inner structure, which could never be made using casting techniques”, Klaus Stadlmann explains. He developed the prototype together with Markus Hatzenbichler. This method is not designed for large-scale production of bulk articles – for that, there are cheaper alternatives. The great advantage of additive manufacturing is the fact that is offers the possibility to produce taylor-made, individually adjusted items. The prototype of the printer is no bigger than a carton of milk, it weighs 1.5 kilograms, and at just 1200 Euros, it was remarkably cheap. “We will continue to reduce the size of the printer, and the price will definitely decrease too, if it is produced in large quantities”, Klaus Stadlmann believes LED-Projector for Higher Resolution. The printer’s resolution is excellent: The individual layers hardened by the light beams are just a twentieth of a millimetre thick. Therefore, the printer can be used for applications which require extraordinary precision – such as construction parts for hearing aids. Unlike previous models, the printer at TU Vienna uses light emitting diodes, with which high intensities of light can be obtained at very well-defined positions. The research group for additive manufacturing technologies  at TU Vienna is working with a variety of different 3D-techniques and materials. New materials – such as special ceramics or polymers – are constantly being developed for 3D-printing. 3D objects can now even be made from eco-friendly biodegradable substances. In cooperation with biologists and physicians, the scientists could show that the artificial structures created with their 3D-printer technology are perfectly suited to serve as a scaffold that supports natural growth of bone structure in the body. Remarkable Versatility No matter whether it is medical parts, adjusted exactly to the patient’s needs, special spare parts which otherwise would have to be shipped around half the globe, or whether it is just some kind of self-designed jewellery: with the versatile and cheap devices and materials developed in Vienna, highly complex 3D objects can now be built from a variety of materials with very different mechanical, optical and thermal properties.22METHODOLOGY     3D Printers use a laser or extruder (the material output part of the printer), that move along an X, Y and Z axis to build an object in three dimensions, wherein successive layers of material are laid down in different shapes. These layers can be only a few microns thick at a time. This is an advantage over traditional method which uses subtractive method where materials are cut or drilled from mould. The layers of materials in liquid, solid or material form are fused together using additive process. 3D printers thus use additive manufacturing or direct digital manufacturing technology to produce proto type of a product. Computer Aided Designing (CAD) software is used. The object is then built layer by layer. Using this new technology, a manufacturer can develop a working prototype in just a few hours compared to traditional prototyping. Ultimately, this results in saving time and cost. Especially since the additive manufacturing process also minimizes waste.There are mainly four distinct types of technologies used in 3D printers: Material extrusion based 3D printers, Photo      polymer, Selective Deposition Lamination and Binding 3D printers.     There are several types of 3D printers. Same basic approach is used even though they may use different material for “printing” an object i.e. spraying or otherwise transferring a substance in multiple layers onto a building surface, beginning with the bottom layer. Before the printing process, first create a 3D image of the product which is to be printed using a computer-assisted design (CAD) software program. That object is sliced in hundred and thousands of pieces until each piece is placed on top of the other for the object to be completed.     One type, called selective laser sintering, involves heating and solidifying granular material with a laser in a specific pattern for each slice before repeating over and over again with new layers; this technique could be used in creating figurines, for example. Another uses UV light to cure layers of resin. Others deposit material much like an automated glue gun. CD-ROM  is used instead of Stepper motor here, Because due to increase in the torque of Stepper motor, speed decreases. With the CD-ROM, we will try to overcome that problem. The CD-ROM will provide the axial motion which will eventually deposit the material through additive. FIG 3.1 3D PRINTING                        Fig.3.2 FLOW DIAGRAMStereo lithography (STL) is one of the most common file types that is used for 3D Printing. Thus, unlike material removed from a stock in the conventional machining process, 3D printing or AM builds a three-dimensional object from computer-aided design (CAD) model or AMF file, usually by successively adding material layer by layer. Generally STLs that have been produced from a model obtained through 3D scanning often have more of these errors. This is due to how 3D scanning works-as it is often by point to point acquisition, reconstruction will include errors in most cases. fig.3.3 Block diagram FIG 3.4 FLOW CHART FIG 3.5 EXTRUDERExtrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section. The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections, and to work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms parts with an excellent surface finish.+RESULTS & DISCUSSIONSA  laser is used, which can be move along X, Y and Z axis to build an object in 3D (three dimensions), wherein successive layers of material are placed  in different shapes. To use the minimal component and to make the project best out of waste, we are using CD-ROM  instead of Stepper motor. Because due to increase in the torque of Stepper motor, speed decreases. With the CD-ROM, we will try to overcome that problem. The object is then built layer by layer. Especially since the additive manufacturing process also minimizes waste.               V.   CONCLUSION3D Printing technology is something that could transform and remould the world. Advances in 3D printing technology can significantly commute and amend the way we manufacture products worldwide.  If the industrial revolution brought us mass production and the arrival of economies of scale – the digital 3D printing revolution could bring mass manufacturing back a full circle.AcknowledgementThis report on “LOW TASK HANDLING 3D-PRINTER” has been possible only because of kind co-operation lent by my teacher and project guide Mr.Hemant Kasturiwale without which this would not have been possible.We would also like to thank our parents, who have provided us with all possible resources to gain best possible knowledge.At last  I would like to thank Dr. B.K. Mishra (Principal), Dr.Kamal Shah(Dean R), Dr.Sandhya Save (Electronics department, HOD) for their guidance and support.


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