Abstract—The aim of this study is to consider angulation and inclination of teethfrom the mould obtained by the patient through impression along with occlusionand evaluation with respect to the actual impression and determine its torquevalue to continue the further process by three different bracket systems. Thefunction and motivation of this project includes automation in the mostneglected field of medical which is dentistry. The automation in this projectincludes greater accuracy and reduced labour work of setting braces. Keywords: Orthodontics , Braces ,Automation , Torque and Angulation (Two Axis) I. INTRODUCTIONOurproject is based on “Two Axis Angulations System”, which consist ofAngulations and Inclination (Torque).
This two axis are used to make a Bracesusing the set of brackets fixed on a different angle with different torqueapplied. These braces are first aligned on a dummy jaw of that person. Afterconstructing the braces, it is removed from the dummy jaw and it is attached tothe teeth’s of that person with the help of some kind of adhesive. Basicallythis whole project is based on making a braces, making a braces is a longprocess. Mostly it takes an hour or more than an hour to set up the braces onthe teeth of an individual.There are some machine which makes it easy toprepare a brace , but most of them must be handled manually which again becomesa hectic task for the dentist and it consumes a lot of time. While preparing abrace manually can also induced some errors or inaccuracy. Hence due to somemiscalculations the preparation of braces can go wrong.
The three order bends which will be replacedare as following:1. Replacing first order bends: variations in the thickness of individual teethare compensated by varying the bracket thickness.2.
Replacing second order bends: the bracket slots are angulatedmediodorsally relative to the long axis of the tooth to achieve properpositioning of the tooth roots in the mesial-distal dimension.3. Replacing third order bends: the angulation of the facial surfaces ofindividual teeth vary markedly with the true vertical. Bracket slots areinclined labiolingually to achieve proper labiolingual tooth inclination.The angulation and torque values built into brackets are called theappliance prescription.
These incorporated modifications would precisely position the averagetooth. II. MOTIVATION The main motive of thisproject is to make a prototype of manually operated braces making machine asautomated. This would reduce the probability of occurrence of errors andinaccuracy in the process of making braces manually. Which would beproportional to the reduction in time and cost of the braces making process.When a patient visits adentist , the treatment provided should not onlysatisfy the patient’s esthetic desires but also satisfy certain functional andphysiologic requirements. The aims of orthodontictreatment is summarized by Jackson as Jackson’s Triad :1. Functional Efficiency2.
Structural Balance3. Esthetic Harmony Figure 2.1: Jackson’s TriadFunctional Effieciency :Many malocclusion affectnormal functioning of the stomatognathic system. The orthodontic treatmentshould thus aim at improving the functioning of the orofacial apparatus. Structural Balance:The oro-facial regionconsist of the dentoalveolar system, the skeletal tissue and the soft tissueincluding musculature. Stable orthodontic treatment is best achieved bymaintaining a balance between these three tissue systems.
Esthetic Harmony:By far the most commonreason for seeking orthodontic care is to improve the appearance of the teeth& face. Many malocclusion are associated with unsightly appearance of teeth& can thus affect the individual’s self image, well being & success insociety. Thus the orthodontic treatment should aim at improving the estheticsof the individual. III. LITERATURE SURVEY In 2013, Andrews LF published the paper’straight-wire appliance, origin, controversy,commentary’.
The aim of this study was to evaluate angulation andinclination of teeth from the study models of individuals with normal occlusionand evaluation of actual expression of torque expressed by three differentbracket systems. In 2016, GermaneN, Bentley BE, Jr, Isaacson RJ published the paper ‘Three biologic variablesmodifying faciolingual tooth angulation by straight-wire appliances’ in which thefacial surface contours of 600 maxillary and mandibular teeth, including 50 ofeach type of tooth from central incisors to first molars, were measured. Facialcontours present at the same location, facial contours from occlusal/incisal togingival surfaces and the angle formed by the coronal and radicular long axesvaried among teeth of the same type. Variation in facial surface contour tended to be greater inthe posterior teeth than in the anterior teeth. Future custom construction ofbrackets, adjusted to individual facial contour differences, will also requireinformation regarding optimal tooth position in the head, includingcompensations necessary for variations in facial skeletal pattern.Dentalbraces in orthodontics are devices thatarrange and straighten the alighnment of the teeth and position them withregard to the ideal teeth, while also aiming to improve dental health. They areoften used to rectifyunderalingnment and underbite,aswellas malocclusions, overbites, open bites, deep bites, crossbites, crooked teeth, and various other flaws of the teethand jaw. Braces can be of two types cosmetic or structural, dependingon the need or requirement on the patient.
They are often used with or incombination with other orthodontic appliances to help brodenthe palate or to otherwise assistin shaping and aligning the teeth and jaws.Looking towards the initial stage ofthis project, It was EdwardAngle who devised the first simple classification system formalocclusions in the braces aligning field, and also further mordenised this asClass I and Class II models that had same but advanced allighningfrunctions.Sir Edwards classification system is still used today as a method for dentiststo describe how crooked teeth are, what manner or way teeth are pointing, andhow they fit together. Angulation and Torquemeasuring parameters contributed greatly to the design of orthodontic anddental appliances, making many alignment to simplify.
Our project ‘Two Axis Angulation System’works on the similar function of teeth alignmnet but in an advanced manner. Weauthors have strived to increase the automation and accuracy by replacingcertain components and adding more features. Our project has an enormousdifference in the working method except the functional basic blocks remainsame. IV. METHODOLOGY The working of the project has totally changed its methodology. The timeconsuming project has changed its manual procedure to Automation throughcertain interfacings and extrapations of certain devices.
To this project the direction and movement is provided by the Servomoterthat is fixed in support to its brackets and movement is handled at a totalrevolution of 360 deg’s. That would cover the area and alignment of the wholemouth. The excultion of Rotary Encoder from Servomoter saves the unwantedvibrations and inaccurate initial and final positions. Talking about theextrapation of man power and time consumption in the process the interfacing ofa keypad would allow the user to enter the prescribed values as assigned by thedoctor after examining the mould. These values are then further displayed onthe LCD (16×2 alligned). The knowledge towards understanding the measuringparaments is put in through AURDINO MEGA. The parameters are burned into itslibrary and further process is checked.
We also do not assure the complete braces formation but only the brackets production and making. For the whole braces to beconnected is done with the help of a silver string or Tar. These Braces then have a constant pressure which, over time, move teethinto the desired positions. The process loosens the tooth after which new bonegrows in to support the tooth in its new position. This process forms a perfectideal or required allignmnet of the teeth. a. COMPONENTS Arduino mega: The Arduino Mega is a microcontroller boardbased on the ATmega1280 (datasheet).
It has 54 digital input/output pins (ofwhich 14 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardwareserial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, anICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support themicrocontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power itwith an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible withmost shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila. Servo motors: A servo motor is a rotaryactuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position, velocityand acceleration. It consists ofa suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires arelatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designedspecifically for use with servomotors. Servomotors are used in applicationssuch as robotics, CNCmachinery or automated manufacturing.LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) 16*2: This screen is an electronicdisplay module and find a wide range of applications.
A 16×2 LCD display isvery basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits.These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily programmable;have no limitation of displaying special & even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations. Keypad4*4: Matrix keypad use acombination of four rows and four columns to provide button states to the hostdevice, typically a microcontroller. Underneath each key is a push button, withone end connected to one row, and the other end connected to one column. This16-button keypad provides a useful human interface component formicrocontroller projects. Convenient adhesive backing provides a simple way tomount the keypad in a variety of applications.
In the matrix keypad, the first 4 pins are for rows and next 4 pins are for columns. The user can connect the keypad to any digital pin ofArduino Mega. Smps(switched mode power supply):A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic powersupply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from aDC or AC source (often mains power), to DC loads, such computers while converting voltage and currentcharacteristics.Switching regulators are used asreplacements for linear regulators when higher efficiency, smaller size orlighter weight is required. They are, however, more complicated; theirswitching currents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefullysuppressed, and simple designs may have a poor power factor.
a. BLOCK DIAGRAM Figure 4.1: Architecture of the prototype b. ALGORITHM V.
FUTURESCOPE We plan to improve ourproject by using some advanced or more efficient components such as some moreefficient controllers and stepper motor instead of servo motors. Controllerslike:1. MSP430 LaunchPad2. Nanode3. Pinguino PIC324. STM32Discovery5. Teensy 2.
0We plan to improve ourproject by using some advanced or more efficient components such as some moreefficient controllers and stepper motor instead of servo motors. Ways in which Stepper Motor is better than ServoMotor :Stepper motors have a more number ofpoles, magnetic pairs of north and south poles generated either by a permanentmagnet or an electric current,typically 50 to 100 poles. In comparison, the servomotors have very few poles, often 4 to 12 in total. Each pole offers a naturalstopping point for the motor shaft. Higher number of poles allows a stepper motor tomove accurately and precisely between each pole and allows a stepper to beoperated without any position feedback for many applications. Servo motorsoften need a positionencoder to keeptrack of the position of the motor shaft, specially if precise movements arerequired.Driving astepper motor to a precise position is simpler than driving a servo motor. Witha stepper motor, a single drive pulse will move the motor shaft one step, fromone pole to the next.
Step size of a given motor is fixed at a certain amountof rotation, moving to a precise position is simply a matter of sending theright number of pulses. VI. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONThe aim, motivation and arrangement behind this paperworkis to complete a medical process in clinically upright rules (according to thelegal practise given) The aurdinomentions the torque and angulation defined onthe LCD through keypad and the servos movement woulkd carry on with the complete process. There are again chances of inaccuracy and inefficiencywhere it is not possible for the servomoter to understand all possible teethangles, as the allignmnet can be of the worst case. This will need to add up asmart instruments like a sensor or any active device that would understand thismisalignmnet.
VII. CONCLUSION The methodology to complete the manually operated process requires atime span of about 20 minutes whereas TWO AXIS ANGULATION SYSTEM (thisproject), uses only a time limit of 3 to 5 minutes to complete its operationalso it is observed that the automation indulges a automation process thatincreases the accuracy of this project. Not only this but replacing some components compared to the manual oncelike replacing rotary encoder with servomoter is again very beneficial.
ACKNOWEDGEMENT It is indeed a matter ofgreat pleasure and proud privilege to be able to present this project on ‘TWO AXIS ANGULATIONS SYSTEM’. The completion of the project work is amilestone in student life and its execution is inevitable in the hands ofguide. We are highly indebted to the project guide Dr. SC Patil his invaluableguidance and appreciation for giving form and substance to this report. It isdue to her enduring efforts, patience and enthusiasm, which has given a senseof direction and purposefulness to this project and ultimately made it asuccess.
We would like to tenderour sincere thanks the staff members of Electronics Engineering department for their co-operation.