According heterosexual and homosexual consumers. Finally, the author

According
to Weinberger, Gulas, and Weinberger (2015), the use of humor in advertisement
has gradually increased over the years as two out of three outdoor advertising
are using humor now a day. On the other hand, humor is frequently deployed in
ethnic or stereotyped advertisement (Eisend, Plagemann, and Sollwedel 2014).

Despite of the fact that humor in advertisement can be used to mitigate
negative stereotype a very little is known about its influence on LGBT
community.  This study addresses this shortage by focusing on
sexualized humor in endorser advertising and its influence on heterosexual and
homosexual consumers. Specifically, this research provides marketers
with an understanding of different marketing techniques which can be used to
target homosexual consumers on main stream media and companies can get
additional market share without eliminating heterosexual consumers. Additionally, this study
examines the untapped gay and lesbian market and influence of the humor on
heterosexual and homosexual consumers. Finally, the author wants to lay
the foundation for future research in relative understanding of gay and lesbian
market. The author also wants to present what is already known from the body of
literature on gay consumers and suggest areas that call for future research.

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1.    
Literature
Reviews:

 

1.1  Gay
dollar (Gender identity and challenges) Check article number 4,5

 

During
the period of early 1970s, the progressing media started to represent gay men
as fashion-forward and classy with a rising emphasis on shocking imagery and
more blatant homoeroticism (Ginder and Byun 2015). This period considers as rule breaking
period because there were different LGBT revolution taking place including the
gay-rights movement, disco and the AIDS outbreak (Ginder and Byun 2015). Furthermore,
as the buying power of LGBT community has become more known, marketers
interested in reaching the homosexual consumers have found a growing number and
variety of print media. However, not surprisingly, only in 2006, marketers
invested more than $233.3 million in the homosexual print media (Wilke,
2007).

According to Marshall (2011); Saucier & Caron (2008) and Um (2012), LGBT
advertisements were predominant in fashion, travel and entertainment categories
apart from other products categories. Apparently, it seems that marketers may
take an additional market of this untapped market by reach out to homosexual
consumers, but, on the other hand, they might also face strong negative
reaction from heterosexual consumers (Bhat, Leigh, and Wardlow, 1999).

Despite
the fact, that heterosexual consumer may show negative reaction to the LGBT
advertisement on mainstream media, firms such as IKEA, Calvin Klein, Banana
Republic and Benetton have run advertisements on mainstream media, however they faced very
little negative evidence (Oakenfull, 2008). 
Thus, marketers may risk
to alienate a huge chunk of the heterosexual community to gain “Dream Market,”
specifically if they design an advertisement which directly appeal homosexual
consumers (Oakenfull, 2008). In a nutshell, today’s marketers are faced
with a dilemma, if they opt to target potentially lucrative homosexual
community only on LGBT plat form, they will miss the big majority of the
consumers who do not use this type of media on regular basis (Oakenfull, 2008).

On the other hand, if they decide to place homosexual oriented ad in the main
stream media, they might come across both, a positive effect on homosexual
community, brand loyalty and purchase intention and a negative effect on the
same outcomes from heterosexuals (Oakenfull, 2008).

LGBT
community shows loyalty to those firms who support the gay community and invest
their budget to promote them in mainstream media. Furthermore, a large
percentage of readers of gay publications report that they are very likely to
buy the mainstream product which is showing the LGBT community in their
advertisement (Oakenfull, 2008). For example, Miller Lite has been the brand
for lesbians which happened due to Miller’s advertising in gay magazines for
the past 10 years (Chase, 1997).

Moving
forward, although gay men earn way less then heterosexual men do (Badgett,
1988), but the combined earning of gay couples is more than heterosexual
couples as they don’t raise the children. Because of this reason marketers are
primarily focused on attracting consumer dollar from gay men (Schulman, 1998)
and tend to show more male images in the advertisements than female one
(Oakenfull and Greenlee, 2004). In addition, LGBT market may seem appealing to
marketers, it’s market size is far less significant than the heterosexual
audience who are not even ready to welcome gay and lesbian’s ads on mainstream
media (Oakenfull and greenlee, 2005).

Furthermore,
it’s understood that an enormous proportion of LGBT community cannot be touched
through gay media only (Oakenfull and greenlee, 2005). However, by highlighting
gay issues in the mainstream media, marketers may gain the favor of gays and
lesbians consumers (Oakenfull and greenlee, 2005).

In
addition to this, a lot of research has paid attention, how men and women
differ in their evaluation of gay. The answer to this question is may be rooted
in the different gender-role beliefs which are held by heterosexual males and
females (Um, 2014).  The further extension
to this, it’s considered that people perception is being influenced by
gender-role beliefs. Therefore, a man who violates gender roles is not
tolerable at all to a certain segment of society, specifically, to male
heterosexuals (Laner & Laner 1979; Stockard & Johnson 1979). According
to Herek (1988), cultural construction of gender might explain better sex
difference in attitudes, as men and women most likely to have different
experience related to the principle of homophobia resulting in differences in
attitudes towards homosexuals between genders. Notably, many males consider
homosexuality to be important to their masculinity compared to their
counterpart, therefore, they refuse to accept gay men who violate the
heterosexual norm (Herek, 1988).

On
the other hand, Oakenfull and Greenlee (2004), mentioned that ‘Heterosexual
females are less likely to perceive rejections of lesbians and gay men to be an
integral part to their own gender identity’ (p. 1279).

Also,
gender identity plays a greater role for lesbians than gay men in defining their
sense of self (Eliason, 1996; Rich, 1980; Rust, 1993). Therefore, lesbians may
label them as women than homosexuals compared to their counterpart gay men who
tend to recognize themselves as homosexuals (Eliason, 1996; Rich, 1980; Rust,
1993). So, if marketers are trying to reach both gay and lesbian with an
advertisement which depicts the homosexual couple, they might be incorrectly
assuming that both gays and lesbians identify more strongly with their sexual
identity than their gender identity and that both genders have the same type of
homosexual identity (Oakenfull, 2008).

 

1.2 
Sexual Behavior and Sexual identity

 

Social sciences argue that there
may be sex differences that gay individuals experience their identity and identify
themselves as gay (Ettorre 1980; Kitzinger 1987; Rich 1980; Rust 1992, 1993;
Vanable, McKirnan, and Stokes 1994). Although different companies have begun to
tap into the LGBT “dream market” (Rigdon, 1991), however this topic has
received very little attention in academic literature. Fuss (1989), shed the
light on the topic of gay identity by asking “is identity a personal, natural,
political or linguistic category?” Expert of this topic hold a point of views
that correlation between homosexual activities and gay identity is neither
fixed nor absolute; however, there is always certain interdependency exist
between sexual identity and sexual behavior, where “sexual behavior” denote to
the definite action of a person while “sexual identity” denote how a person
label him or herself (Bailey, 1995).

Different scholars define
homosexual identity in different way, for instant, Troiden (1988), describe
homosexual sexual identity from a social interactionsit perspective. According
to him, homosexual identity is a part of cognitive construct and a component of
self-concept. Waren (1974), in his article outlined that the way gay people
view homosexuality is more complicated compared to the way heterosexual do. On
the other hand, feminist theorist claim to have different identity for lesbian
compared to gays because lesbians face simultaneous oppression based on their
gender as well as on their sexual orientation (Bristor and Fischer, 1995),
compared to gay males. Resultantly, both gays and lesbians experience their
gender identity differently. The inclusion of lesbian as “female version of
male homosexuality” have been argued by lesbian feminist (Rich, 1980; Rust,
1992, 1993). Furthermore, there is a fundamental difference in the way males
and females identify as homosexual.

According to Eliason, (1996), the
term “political gay man” doesn’t show in the studies of lesbians’ identity
compared to the term “political lesbian”. Interestingly, research shows that,
sexual identity for gay men is mainly associated with gay activities, however,
when it comes to their counterpart, there is much stronger political and
emotional component involved (Eliason, 1996).

In short, the idea of Warren (1974)
related to homosexual appears to differ between sexes (Oakenfull, 2007). As both
gay males and lesbians may wish to be targeted with gay imagery, but the way each
will identify themselves will differ. According to (Oakenfull and Greenlee,
working paper) marketer may wish to target both lesbian and gay with gays
imaginary but we could expect that both gender would like to identify most
strongly witht the advertisement which mirror their own sex. Therefore,
lesbians will prefer an advertisement which will represent lesbians than gays and
same hold for gay male as well (Oakenfull, 2007).

Oakenfull and Greenlee (2013), the
LGBT focus magazine whose circulation is 88,000, found that, in 1999, only
three percent of the advertisement targeted lesbian. This skewness towards gay
consumers could be because of two reasons, first, marketers have simply decided
to ignore lesbians because of the income gap that exist between lesbian and
gays (Albelda etal. 2009), or, second, they assume that gay men oriented ad
will also target lesbians and lesbians will definitely translate themselves and
related them to the ad (Schulman 1998). Because of this small part of
representation, only number of lesbian consumers read gay media, however, they prefer
mainstream magazines magazines such as Newsweek , Time , People , National
Geographic , Vanity Fair , and Consumer Reports  (Tharp 2001).  Therefore, if marketers are willing to target
both gays and lesbian then they must come up with a different technique. 

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