Wood is a natural resource that used to be used in copiousness for the building of Houses. However, with the decreasing supply of wood owing to depletion of wood militias, alternate stuffs are being looked into for the building of houses. Over the past decennary overall timber monetary values have both increased and become more volatile.
Surprisingly two of the most admired modern houses are made of steel. One by Philip Johnson known as Glass House and the 2nd by Meis new wave der Rohe known as Farnsworth House. In malice of these first-class landmarks built in the first half of the 19Thursdaycentury, we are merely now on the threshold of steel building for house design. Steel may non hold caught the oculus up until now owing to the fact that the tooling required for steel place production is more demanding than that for wood or masonry, and the market was limited. Manufacturers typically do n’t make one-off designs, preferring to make multiple units to accomplish economic systems of graduated table. This is the chief cause for non accepting steel as the chief edifice stuff used by designers. It limits the designs. But lodging as a home is non guided by design, but alternatively it is the lastingness and the cost effectivity of the edifice that is of paramount concern for an mean individual who wants to construct a house.
In 1991, for the market in the United States, lumber costs for a 2,000 square pes place averaged approximately $ 5,000. In 1993, the timber cost for the same size place was about $ 12,200 ( up to $ 491 per 1,000 board pess ) . As the framing costs are accounting for about 20 per centum of the entire cost of the place, and a home-builder ever tries to endeavor for maximal benefits from optimal costs, alternate merchandises are ever being looked into.
( Warte, 2000 ) Alternate merchandises are besides given a test when they have a pricing that is competitory to traditionally used stuffs.
In 1993, for the first clip in the United States, the monetary value of a steel-framing bundle started to go competitory with a wood bundle for the same constituents used in house edifice. That’s when builders began believing about exchanging from wood to steel bordering. This option of steel was besides being looked into as the quality of wood available was deteriorating owing to cutting before the needed annealing which was non supplying the desired tensile strength.
The first use of steel frames was in wall frames. Steel joists and trusses can accomplish greater spans, opening up big infinites inside a place. It provided extra infinite for the designers to play with inside the house. Steel as a medium had the advantage in that it is able to hold both tensile emphasis and besides the comprehensive emphasis in the same magnitude, which is non the instance with either wood or strengthened concrete. From being used in 27170 walls in USA in 1997, the figure of walls usage had jumped to 51554 in 2002 ( Fanjoy, 2003 )
Advantages of Steel FramingCharacterized by high quality, steel houses are made from unvarying quality stuff, its walls are consecutive, with square corners, and eliminates to a big extent dads in dry walls, which one has to bear with in the instance of either wood or RCC walls ( Loree,2003 ) . Apart from salvaging cherished wood for building, walls of steel are non-combustible and hence are fire immune, and they can non be infested with white ants, as steel is inorganic. Bing fire resistant means that the insurance premium for such houses is much less, as compared to that for a normal house. ( Scharff, 2003 ) .
In Hawaii in 1998, over tierce of all new places were built with steel to protect against the rapacious Formosan white ant. Its allowable emphasis values on mean scope from 21,000 to 33,000 lbs per square inch ( pounds per square inch ) . Specific advantages offered by the usage of steel framing in a seismal event include the undermentioned considerations:
- Steel is a stable stuff with consistent chemical properties. Once the steel he-man has been formed, it will stay consecutive with virtually no alteration to the thickness, breadth or other dimensional belongingss.
- Because the stuff and geometric belongingss of a steel-framing member are stable, the overall strength of the construction will depend upon the quality of connexions between the he-man
Used with equal insularities, steel-framed places can be as energy efficient as wood-framed places. All light gage steel bordering contains a lower limit of 25 % recycled steel. The major environmental benefits of steel bordering include: –
a.A 25 % lower limit recycled content and 100 % recyclability ;
b.Minimal occupation site waste due to standard quality ( 2 % for steel vs. 20 % for wood ) ;
cLife rhythm energy nest eggs due to the air stringency of the construction
d.A long construction life cut downing the demand for future edifice resources ( zero depletion of Fe resources ) .
The usage of steel-framed members enables builders and interior decorators to gain recognition points under Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ( LEED ) Programs. The recycled content value of the steel produced exceeds the 5 % and 10 % ends in LEED ( Warte, 2000 ) .
It can non be seen by the bare oculus that a house has been built utilizing a steel frame, as steel framed places can be finished with the same stuffs ( interior and exterior ) used to complete wooden places.
It besides facilitates faster panelling and facilitates in rushing up the on site building procedure by leting the assembly of walls in controlled environments. Steel bordering members besides have pre-punched holes that allow for easy installing of electrical wiring and plumbing. The assortment of sizes and thickness of steel contribute to flexibleness. Being lightweight, it is easy to manage, so it facilitates in decreased labour costs and worker weariness, and cold-formed steel has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any edifice stuff ( Bliss, 2003 ) .
From a wellness point of view, steel has a twosome of advantages, so it is sometimes used in non-toxic building. Some people are sensitive to ache, so steel can extinguish its usage ( Bower, 1990 ) .
Therefore, it is high clip that an consciousness is created amongst consumers about the tremendous scope of benefits that steel has to offer. There is now a demand to look inside the walls and happen the sensed value that steel offers and non seek for it after one is ravaged either by fire, termite harm, nail dads or crooked walls.
1.Bliss, Steven: residential Structure and Framing, 2003
- Bower, John: Light gage Steel framing, Indiana Builder, November, 1990
- Fanjoy, Rob: The Steel bordering Solution, 2003
- Loree, E.N. : Residential Steel bordering Construction Guide, 2002
- Scharff, Robert ; A ; the Editors of Walls and Ceilings Magazine, residential Steel Framing House book, 2003
- Warte, Tim J: Steel frame House Construction, 2003