Advantages and Disadvantages as Nowadays People Live Longer than in the PastTable of Contentss:1.
Introduction2. Main Body2.1 Advantages as Peoples live longer than yesteryear2.1.1 Increased aging Population supplies more Reliable Human Resource for the Society2.1.
2 Longer life Span of Human will advance Development of Aging Industry2.2 Disadvantages as people live longer than yesteryear2.2.1 Aging population go the heaviest load of public finance2.2.2 Population aging leads to Imbalance of Population Structure3.
Since the industrial revolution in England, advancement of engineering makes universe economic system and civilization progressively present a tendency of globalisation. Against this background, betterment of life quality and planetary sharing of medical engineering supports people to populate longer than in the past, therefore, length of service is the result of world civilisation develops into a certain phase. However, merely as everything else, when prolongation of mean life span creates positive influence on human society, it besides restricts its development.The essay will be separated into two parts. Respectively, they will discourse positive part and negative influence that longer life anticipation creates for the society.In the portion of positive part, the essay will discourse how ageing population supplies more outstanding human resource for the society and the function increased aging population dramas in advancing development of associated industries.In the portion of negative influence, the essay will utilize illustrations to discourse the force per unit area of aging society exerts on public finance and the instability job that it causes on planetary population.
2. Main Body
2.1 Advantages as Peoples live longer than yesteryear
Advancement of engineering makes the aged who have rich cognition and experience become favourable human resource of endeavors. And changeless growing of aging population besides promotes birth and development of the elderly industries.
2.1.1 Increased aging Population supplies more Reliable Human Resource for the Society
The aging population owns rich experience, wisdom and accretion of cognition. They are of import human resource for creative activity of societal luck.
It is because at presents when engineering is acquiring more developed, the demand to strong manual labours of endeavors is weakening. On the contrary, their demand to the labours that have comparatively high theoretical cognition degree and practical accomplishments is increasing bit by bit. In this inevitable tendency, the senior, who can non go on to prosecute in manual labour but ain some sort of accomplishment, become high quality human resource of the society today ( Elliott, 1995 ) . To endeavors, disposition of senior is more stable and they are less likely to alter occupations often. They frequently have high degree professional accomplishments and endeavors need non set up excess preparation for them. Furthermore, rich societal and interpersonal experience of senior endows them stronger professional dedication than immature people. Therefore, employment of senior saves a batch of human resource costs for endeavors.
And to the persons, in the instance physical status allows, postponed retirement non merely could enrich subsequently life of the aged but besides could increase their income and do more material accretion for their hereafter. And to the authorities, if the aged support working, it will non merely prorogue the clip they draw a pension, in contrast, they still could do part to accretion of societal pension insurance fund by paying revenue enhancement.To sum up, as people today live longer than in the yesteryear, they could provide dependable human resource for modern society. It is advantageous to endeavors, persons, the authorities and mankind civilisation.
2.1.2 Longer life Span of Human will advance Development of Aging Industry
Aging industry refers to the industrial system that locks the aged as mark service objects, including all commercial organisations and endeavor activities specially providing merchandises and service for the aged. Different with usual categorization, it is an industry merely concentrating on aging population.
Following the coming of aging clip globally, aging industry Usshers in an chance to develop greatly. Developed states like United States and England have stepped into aging society long earlier developing states. Pension system and public assistance policy of these states are sound. The authorities is competent to pay assorted disbursals for the aged. Under the background, western developed counties bit by bit form aging industry. The industry chiefly involves facets that need work out for the elderly such as life attention, organic structure wellness and religious solace and so on.
For illustration, aged lodging industry, daily care service industry, aged diversion, merchandises for the aged etc. The aging industry has accounted for a big proportion in economic sum of developed states. For illustration, ingestion of older Americans had reached 800 billion in 1986, which took 18 % of the country’s GDP at the same twelvemonth ( Bloom & A ; Canning, 2010 ) . To developing states, though aging population is increasing continuously, aging industry is still at initial phase of development.
Taking China that has the largest population in the universe for illustration, in 2012, the proportion of aging population was 14.3 % . It is expected that the figure will make 30 % boulder clay 2050 ( Chinese Academy of Social Science, 2013 ) .
Such a big graduated table aging population will make great demand to medical intervention, aged attention and aged merchandises and so on. However, aging industry development of the state is really rearward. In 2011, the end product value merely took 5.5 % of the GDP, which is far less current degree of developed states.
To fulfill the demand, no affair authorities or endeavors are seeking to develop aging industry at present. It makes proportion of the industry in GDP addition twelvemonth by twelvemonth and the industrial construction is besides acquiring more and more complete ( Liu, 2004 ) .Therefore, from experience of developed states and endeavoring way of developing states, longer life span of homo will advance development of aging industry and make new growing point for economic system of the state.
2.2 Disadvantages as people live longer than yesteryear
Longer life anticipation is achievement of advancement of material civilisation but as mean life span is lengthening, birthrate rates of many states in the universe Begin to worsen.
And so it leads to appearance of aging society. An of import public outgo of aging society is pension cost. In some developed states, pension outgo has become the heaviest load of national finance and restricts returns of the whole society. And another job caused by aging of population is instability of population construction.
1 Aging population go the heaviest load of public finance
The load aging population cause to public finance chiefly focuses on below facets: pension outgo, medical and attention cost, populating installation building for the aged and associated care cost etc. At present, many developed states with sound pension system have felt the heavy force per unit area aging population enforce on public finance. The world’s foremost economic power America is an illustration.
In 2000, the population aged over 65 accounted for 12.4 % of entire population of America. It is expected to make 20 % boulder clay 2050 ( Albany Edu, 2006 ) . Such a big aging population makes societal security system of America bear immense disbursement force per unit area. In 2005, president of the United States Bush pointed out: in 2018, societal security system of America will neglect to do ends meet. Since so, the spread of societal security will increase twelvemonth by twelvemonth.
Till 2042, the whole societal security system will be exhausted. In add-on, as aging population is devouring public finance rapidly, it besides restricts national income. In 1950, every 16 working people support one retired person averagely in America but boulder clay 2004, it becomes every 3.3 officeholders back up one.
It is estimated that boulder clay 2024, there will be merely 2.3 working people support one retired person. To satisfy demand of the aged population, the sum of societal security payment in America is increasing continuously. In 1937, both employer and employee normally pay 2 % of the employee’s wage as societal security revenue enhancement. In 1990, the proportion was increased to 15.
3 % . Above information indicates, in gait with growing of aging population, the load of population that have an duty to pay revenue enhancements is acquiring heavier and heavier. Their income is bearing a negative influence ( Mercado,2012 ) .
2.2.2 Population aging leads to Imbalance of Population Structure
Another job ripening of population on a planetary graduated table brings is instability of population construction. In gait with rise of woman’s economic position and betterment of life quality, more and more immature people choose to give up holding kids. It leads to an instability of population construction in developed states and a portion of developing states with high velocity growing. More specifically, it shows in lifting proportion of aging population and uninterrupted falling proportion of population aged below 14. The information from United States Census Bureau reveals the form of universe population age pyramid in 1950 was really standard. The proportion of population aged over 60 was far lower than that of population aged below 14.
However till 1990, form of the pyramid had been changed. The proportion of population aged over 60 rose aggressively. It is predicted that until 2030, age pyramid will be near to spindle form ( See Chart 1 ) ( CDC, 2003 ) . It means the population construction so will be earnestly imbalanced. In farther measure, it will hold a immense blow on future universe economic system.Chart 1: The Age Pyramid for 1950, 1990 and 2030Social relations and social exchanges