Agricultural of plant species and animal species that

biodiversity is defined as the variety and variability of plants, animals, microorganisms
that are used in food and agriculture. It is the result of the interaction
between humans and natural ecosystems. To specify it, agricultural biodiversity
can be expanded and classified into ecological diversity, organismal diversity
and genetic diversity. It is an extension of biodiversity in order to include
units and habitats that are not usually accepted by some biologists. Agricultural
biodiversity includes, physical, social, cultural, ethical and spiritual
elements that results the crops and food produced vary in different places. Elements
that bring beneficial and harm to crops, food, and ecosystem are also included
in agricultural biodiversity.  For example,
species and habitats outside of farming systems that can enhance ecosystem
functions, elements that able to supply goods and services to humans are some
of the elements that benefit agriculture. Pollination and control of greenhouse
gas emissions and soil dynamics are some other elements that contribute to ecosystem
services. Moreover, pests, weed and diseases are harmful elements that affect
crops and food adversely.

The number of plant
species and animal species that were successfully domesticated becomes smaller.
Agriculture has been simplifying across the centuries due to agricultural
revolution which few plant species had been successfully domesticated. The nutritional
value, ease of cultivation, reliability and ability to adopt to change of the
plants are the considerations for the farmers to select and plant. Besides, the
breeding of wild species, adaptation to external conditions and the other
cultural and economic factors has caused the farmers to develop and unexpected
local varieties and landraces. Due to different external conditions, landraces
and primitive cultivars have their own adaptation, own characteristics and
nutrition levels. Domestics livestock can help to prevent the extinction of
animal species and diversity results of hunting, changes to their habitats etc.

However, agriculture
has caused a major reduction in dietary diversity due to the intensification of
agriculture which only few types of crop species used for planting. Intensive
agriculture aroused much controversy among the researchers. Some researchers claimed
that by intensive agriculture like high carbohydrate crops, hunters-gatherers
can concentrate on providing protein and other nutrients, and so balance nutrient
can be taken. However, some other researchers claimed that intensive agriculture
has caused adverse effect on health as only few nutrition dominate the dietary
intake, which can cause nutrient deficiencies and diseases. But overall,
agricultural intensification brings more benefits than harms by reducing mortality
and increasing in health level.

Simplification of
agriculture not only due to modern intensive agriculture, others form of
agriculture like traditional agriculture, small-scale cultivation of staples,
home gardening are also the reasons. Small-scale agricultures contribute some
of the food supply in the world. Small-scale agricultures are rich in agricultural
biodiversity as they use polycropping and intercropping to maintain the
variation within the crops. Small-scale agricultures can also help in
conserving the local knowledge, besides providing micronutrient and vitamins to
human as the farmers use local underutilized species that are very valuable but
less investigated by researchers.

Home gardens also
play important role in improving household food security and reduce
micronutrient deficiencies. It applies on the area of land around the family
home. It is normally practiced in tropical and subtropical regions. It is
normally a subsistence agriculture.Home gardens also rich in agricultural
biodiversity as they contain up to 100 or more species in a garden. Home
gardens can also provide animal products. Thus, Home gardens able to improve
the nutrition, incomes and diet of rural poor. However, there are little
evidence on their nutritional status.

conclusion, agricultural biodiversity contributes human food, nutrition and
health especially in traditional food systems besides agricultural intensification.
Traditional food systems provide nutrition, micronutrient, diet variety and
sustain the livelihoods not only in local communities but also people around
the world. Hence, local biodiversity is one of the significant contributions to
a sustainable agriculture-food-nutrition. Not only the traditional food
systems, home gardens also able to provide sufficient nutrients, micronutrients
to human diets. However, the lack of knowledge about these agricultural methods
involved resulted in less attention to the investigation of their nutrient
contributions and micronutrients of local food. Assessments, integrated
approaches, and attention are needed to investigate local food resources with
nutritional, agronomic, and economic advantages. In short, agricultural
biodiversity plays important role in providing sustainable of nutrition to
human in response to the challenges of global change.


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