Also by the reduction of glucose. It has

Also known as sugar
substitutes

Sweeteners definition:

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They are low or zero
calorie chemical compounds used as sugar substitutes to sweet foods and
beverages to reduce its calorie content.

Sweeteners classification:

1-Nutritive
sweeteners:

(add small amount of
calories to body)

                        sugar alcohols
(polyols)

            * Sorbitol    * mannitol

            * maltitol    * lactitol

            * xylitol

2-Non-nutritive
sweeteners:

(Didn’t add any calories
to body)  – also known as intense
sweeteners.                    

v Natural:

*   Stevia

v Synthesized:

*   Aspartame      * 
Saccharin

*   Cyclamate       * 
Acesulfame – k 

*   Sucralose        *  
Neotame

*   Advantame

 

1- Sugar alcohols:

* Sorbitol (E420):

Naturally occurring
sugar substitute

It can be found in
apples , pears and peaches.

It can be obtained by
the reduction of glucose.

It has 50 % of the
sweetness of sucrose.

It is metabolized slowly
by the body.

Sold
under brand names sorbo & glucitol.

Used
in the processing of dried fruits , candies and cake.

* Mannitol (E 421):

It
can be extracted from a wide variety of plants and can be synthesized through
the hydrogenation of fructose.

It has 60 % of the
sweetness of sucrose.

We can found it in
candies, jams and chocolate.

* Maltitol (E 965):

It is a sugar alcohol
made from maltose and has 75-90% of the sweetness of sucrose Used to replace
table sugar because it has fewer calories, it does not promote tooth decay, and
has a less effect on blood glucose. Like other sugar alcohols, large quantities
can have a laxative effect.

* lactitol (E 966):

Lactitol
is a non-natural sugar
alcohol synthesized

through the
hydrogenation of lactose.

It
has 40 % of the sweetness
of sucrose.

Lactitol
is heat stable.

it
is used in food to replace sucrose in gelly, jams, marmalades, chocolate and chewing 
gums. it is also used in pharmaceuticals as it has a mild laxative effect.

lactitol
is poorly absorbed in the small intestine as un changed lactitol.

64%
of lactitol is degraded by the gut micro flora into butyric acid, propionic
acid and acetic acid (VFA), and absorbed in the gastro intestinal tract .

The
microbial fermentation leads to acidification (pH reduction)and inhibition of
ammonia production; this leads to increased colonic osmotic pressure and water
levels in colon that result in laxative effect.

6.5%
of lactitol is excreted un changed in the stools and in urine.

 

* Xylitol (E 967)

Naturally occurring
sugar substitute.

It is found in the
fibers of many fruits and vegetables, and can be extracted from mushrooms, and
can be extracted from fibrous material like sugar cane bagasse. Xylitol is
almost as sweet as sucrose with only two-thirds of energy.

It
can be synthesized by the reduction of xylose.

Its use may result in
temporary gastrointestinal side effects, such as flatulence and diarrhea.

We can find it in
candies, jams and chocolate.

Non-nutritive sweeteners:

a- Natural:

Stevia (E 960)

It is a product found in
the leaves of a plant called Stevia rebaudiana.

It has many compounds
and the most important compounds are :stevioside (A & B) , rebaudioside
(A,B,C,D,E) & Dulcoside.

Stevioside is the
major component (5-15%)

-has a bitter taste when
consumed in high quantities.

-It is 200-300 times
sweeter than sucrose.

rebaudioside A (known
as Rebiana)

-dried leaves
contains (3-4%) rebaudioside A

-It is 200-300 times
sweeter than sucrose.

-Its stability
decreases with increase in temperature.

-It doesn’t have any
after taste.

It is approved in many
food products including cereals , beverages , as well as a table top sweetener.

 ADI=12mg/kg body weight.

 

B- Synthetic sugar substitutes:

* Aspartame (E 951) :

It
is the methyl ester of L-aspartic acid and L-phenyl alanine.

It
is 180 : 200 times sweeter than sucrose and is marketed under the brand names :
aspartil,equal and neutrasweet

Aspartame
can be found in a wide variety of prepared foods e.g., carbonated soft drinks,
chew­ing gum, gelatins, dessert mixes, puddings and fillings, frozen desserts,
yogurt, and as a   tabletop sweet­ener,
and some medications (e.g., vitamins and sugar-free cough drops).

It loses
sweetening properties when exposed to high temperature then ,it isn’t
recommended for baking (it can be added to food at the end of cooking cycle).

Metabolism
of aspartame occurs in the intestinal lumen and mucosal cells by proteolytic
and hydrolytic enzymes.

The byproducts
(aspartic acid , phenyl alanine and methanol) are released into the portal
blood.

Plasma
phenyl alanine levels return to normal within 4 hours of taking aspartame.

Because
aspartame contains phenylalanine, the FDA has mandated packag­ing bear a
warning label to prevent individuals with the rare genetic disorder phenylketonuria
(PKU) from ingesting substances containing aspartame.

Cyclamic
acid(E 952)

It can be found as sodium or calcium cyclamate.

it is 30:50 times sweeter than sucrose and it is heat stable.

FDA banned its use because the findings on animals suggested that its use
may increase bladder cancer in humans.

Saccharin (E 954):

It
consists of benzoic sulfamide .

It
has no calories and it is 300 : 700 times sweeter than sucrose.

It is
marketed as Sweet’N Low and sweetens a lot of products, including baked goods,
jams, chewing gum, canned fruit, candy, dessert toppings, and salad dressings.
Saccharin is also used in cosmetic products (e.g., toothpaste, mouthwash, and
lip gloss), vitamins, and medications.

foods that
contain saccharin were required to carry a warning label to indicate that
“saccharin is a potential cancer causing agent.” Future research show­ the
safety of this product led to this decision being overturned

saccharin is
not absorbed or metabo­lized by the body . It is excreted, unchanged, via the
kidneys and it is completely eliminated from the body within 16 to 18 hours.

 The FDA considers saccharin safe, because it
is not metabolized.

Acesulfame
– K (E 950):

It is
marketed as sunett and sweet one.

it
is 180: 200 times sweeter than sucrose and has no calories .

It is used to decrease the bitter aftertaste of aspartame

In 2003, it was approved for general use in foods, excluding meat
or poultry.

It
is heat stable
so it can be found in baked goods, frozen desserts, can­dies, beverages,
chewing gum,  cough drops, and breath
mints.

Acesulfame-K
is not me­tabolized by the body and it is excreted unchanged.

Sucralose
(E 955):

It is
trichloro galacto sucrose

It is a
sucrose molecule in which 3 hydroxyl groups are replaced with 3 chlorine
atoms.

It is
approximately 600 times sweeter than sucrose and it is stable under heat and
over abroad range of PH conditions.

It is
marketed as splenda, sukrana, sukraplus and nevella.

it can be
found in frozen desserts, can­dies, gums and can be also used in baking. 

Sucralose
doesn’t add any calories to body because it is not digested and passes through
the gastrointestinal tract and it is eliminated in the feces unchanged.

Neotame
(E 961):

It is a derrivative
of aspartame

It is 7000 :
13000 times sweeter than sucrose

It is
moderately heat stable

It is used
in pharmaceuticals, jams, marmalades chewing gum, juices, jellies and as a
table top sweetener

It is
rapidly metabolized, the major metabolic path way is hydrolysis of the methyl ester
by esterases . this yields de – esterification neotame (NC – 00751) and
insignificant amount of methanol.

neotame and
de – esterified neotame are rapidly cleared and completely eliminated in the
urine and feces within 72 hours and doesn’t accumulate in the body.

Advantame

It
is chemically like aspartame.

It is 20000
times sweeter than sucrose

It is 100
times sweeter than aspartame.

It was
approved by FDA in 2014 .

 

 

Benefits of
sweeteners:

Sweeteners
are used to provide sweetness of foods

and
drinks with out providing calorie intake.  

They
may be used to control weight, in diabetes

mellitus
and in heart diseases.

They
may be used also in dental care.

They
may be used to neutralize the bitterness in

certain
medicinal products.

Sugar
alcohols are used to increase bulk and texture

of
foods.

Sugar
alcohols are metabolized by the body more slowly than sucrose and have a little
effect on blood glucose levels.

 

Possible
risks of sweeteners:

Commonly
used sweeteners may be toxic at high

concentrations
in the long term use and may cause variety of hazards including hepatotoxicity,
low birth weight (saccharin), headache, (aspartame).

A
study conducted in 2005 demonstrated that

aspartame
caused lymphomas and leukemias in rats.

Another
study conducted in 2010 demonstrated

that
foods containing aspartame increase blood glucose levels the same as sucrose
containing foods.

A
study conducted in 2014 demonstrated that

acesulfame
potassium, aspartame, saccharin and sorbitol cause DNA damage.

Another
study conducted in 2017 demonstrated

that
acesulfame potassium affect the gut microbiome and increased body weight gain
of males only.

High
concentrations of polyols may cause diahrrea

and
flatulence.

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