. American at 2%, biracial at 2%, American

.  Lund, H. G.,Reider, B. D., Whiting, A. B.

, & Prichard, J. R. (2010).

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Sleep Patterns          and Predictors of Disturbed Sleep in aLarge Population of College Students. Journalof Adolescent Health, 46, 124-132.doi:10.1016/j.

jadohealth.2009.06.

0162.    Whatcollege students’ sleep patterns are like and what affects their sleep.3.    Itwas an observational study.4.    Thevariables involved in this study were behavior, fatigue, academic performance,sleep habits and patterns, and physical, emotional and psychological factors.5.

    Sleephabits and patterns, and physical, emotional and psychological facts werepredictive variables.6.    Behavior,academic performance and fatigue were predicted variables.7.    Thepurpose of this study was to portray what causes poor sleep quality andpatterns of sleep in college students.8.

    Theparticipants were 420 male and 705 female students aged 17-24 from a large,private, Midwest university. These students were either entered in a raffle forgift certificates from $25-$150 value or they could get a class credit forcertain psychology courses. Of these participants, most were Caucasian at 86%,and the rest were Asian or Pacific Islander at 5%, African American at 2%,biracial at 2%, American Indian or Alaskan Native at 1%, and Hispanic at 0.4%(3% did not specify or chose other). 9.

    Thefollowing materials were used: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index whichmeasures seven factors affecting sleep over the last month on a 0-3 scale, 3being the worst. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale has eight items, testing howsleepy the participant has felt over the past 6 months, also on a 0-3 scale, 3being the sleepiest. The Horne-Ostberg Morningness Eveningness Scale whereparticipants select time preferences for activities between 5:00 a.m. and 12:00p.m. The Subjective Units of Distress Scale measures participants’ level ofstress.

The Profile of Mood States measures how much participants feeldepression, tension, fatigue, confusion, vigor, and anger.10. Anemail was sent to the eligible students and the survey was available online inthe middle of the semester for 4 weeks. After finishing the survey studentscould go to a different site to enter the raffle.11. Theresult was that college students have chronically restricted sleep as well aspoor sleep quality. Poor quality sleepers has higher negative mood scores andmore illness.

These sleepers also drink more alcohol than others and ingestmore prescription medications to stay awake. The largest cause for poor sleepquality was reported to be stress.