Antoni Gaudi in context both architecturally and politically
The undermentioned thesis seeks to look at the artistic, political and ideological bequest of Antoni Gaudi – one of the most advanced designers of the modern epoch. We propose in peculiar to look at both his creative end product and his ideological strong beliefs, charting the building of some of Spain’s most celebrated cultural landmarks in tandem with an analysis of the historical context in which these landmarks were created. This, we believe, represents the best agencies of analyzing Gaudi. By trying to make a synthesis between the Modernist Movement and the Art nouveau manner for which he was celebrated and the politically volatile period in which he lived we can break understand how Gaudi was – in kernel – a merchandise of his clip, state and typical political civilization. We can understand, as a effect, the interplay of architecture, political orientation and political relations that conspired to do his work among the most ambitious and alone in modern European art history ( Lahuerta, 2003:2-10 ) . Furthermore, in trying this synthesis we can besides understand the extent to which Gaudi’s work remains outside of these fixed ideological parametric quantities and how in many ways his bequest can be understood in footings of entirely “independent experiments” ( Bergdoll, 2000:189 ) that have no equal anyplace else in the universe. Ultimately of class, we have to observe the indispensable differences between architecture and political relations, which involves accepting that art is by definition an wholly subjective phenomenon whose aesthetic beauty lives longer in the memory than any one adult male or any political political orientation.
Antoni Gaudi The Architect
Antoni Gaudi The Ideologue
Antoni Gaudi can in many ways be seen to be a contradictory figure. He was at one time a political patriot and originative designer ; a passionate and traditional Catholic and a radical artistic innovator ; and an compulsively punctilious creative person who was ne’er able to complete his specifying piece of work. For these grounds, Gaudi cuts an stray figure within the broader context of the great modernist creative persons and designers of the 20th century – a sense of isolation which seems exacerbated by the fact that he did non belong to one remarkable originative ‘movement’ . Although he was known to hold moved within the same artistic circles as the famed Spanish creative person Pablo Picasso, Gaudi remained a adult male fuelled by his ain alone artistic vision get marrieding the nucleus ideals of the broader Modernist Movement to the originative manners of art nouveau, Catalan patriotism and Gothic resurgence in a alone and extremely ambitious artistic loanblend while declining to tether himself to any modern-day school of artistic vision. Therefore, we should gain that, unlike many of his coevalss, Gaudi has been a figure that descendants has been comparatively slow to recognize. Renowned and loved within his ain life-time ( particularly by the Catalans to whom he was emotionally and artistically tithed ) his work was airbrushed from Spanish tradition by the anti-Catalan, fascist absolutism which took over political, military and administrative control of Spain after the surcease of the Spanish Civil War in 1939. Merely with the flowering of independent Catalan patriotism, which has flourished in the coevalss since the passing of General Franco in 1976, has Gaudi’s work one time once more go a cardinal dogma of mainstream Spanish civilization. This has necessitated an extended re-evaluation of his work – both by designers and historiographers likewise.
Viewed through this prism, so, Gaudi represents a complex, extremely disputing and alone figure to analyze. Furthermore, he offers us a glance of modern Spanish ( specifically, Catalan ) history that clip has non forgotten. For these grounds, the survey of Antoni Gaudi is a relevant project, which will supply us with valuable penetrations associating to some of the most memorable pieces of Spanish architecture and some of the most momentous water partings in modern Spanish history. Yet before we commence our analysis, get downing with an scrutiny into the bequest of Antoni Gaudi the designer, we must look to set up the cardinal paradigms associating to plan during the late 19th century and early 20th century so as to set up a conceptual model for the balance of the treatment.
As we have already briefly noted, Gaudi’s major plants can all be located within the broader artistic motion of Modernism and we must try in the first case to raise up a definition of this term seeing as it acts as a cardinal ideological boundary within the thesis. The construct of ‘modernism’ , as the name suggests, concerned the coming of the epoch of the modern upon the outgrowth of civil society and the effects that this had for the deepest and most profound manners of human expressionism. Modernist artistic visions such as the famed art nouveau manner of art and architecture were therefore portion of a witting move off from the historical resurgences that had characterised European artistic enterprise during the seventeenth, eighteenth and early 19th centuries. Therefore, whereas, for case, Romanticism and Classicism strove to foreground the additive historical connexion between the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome with the modernizing civilizations of Western Europe, modernism aimed to disassociate itself wholly from the past via backing a entirely new sort of artistic vision that sought to dispute the dominant existing cultural and aesthetic ideals and to set up new boundaries for the creative activity and treatment of art. As we will see, it was the challenge to old, anachronic artistic ideals and the subsequent re-charting of originative boundaries that would cabal to make fertile evidences for Gaudi’s most famed architectural chef-d’oeuvres. Therefore, we should understand from the beginning that Gaudi was – whether consciously or subconsciously – a cardinal constituent of the European-wide modernist, art nouveau motion. Even though he was non actively traveling in modernist circles Gaudi was inexorably bound by the modernist thrust that characterised the last decennaries of the 19th century and the gap decennaries of the 20th century. This is an of import point to observe and one that ought to be borne in head throughout the balance of the treatment.
We should besides observe how Gaudi and the modernist, art nouveau motion to which he was inexorably bound were non merely backlashes against the historical resurgences of old eras ; that they were in kernel typical merchandises of their ain fixed historical construction made possible by the widespread technological progresss of the Industrial Age. As Hugh Honour and John Fleming ( 2005:725 ) note, the ‘new’ manners of art nouveau were the consequence of an all-pervasive ‘newness’ that had wholly captivated late 19th century society and civilization.
“The rapid diffusion of art nouveau all over Europe was due mostly to another late 19th century phenomenon – the lavishly illustrated art magazine made possible by new reproduction processes following the innovation of picture taking. Art magazines now had international circulations and they, together with the international exhibitions which were besides a characteristic of the 1890s, could do an artist’s work known really widely and really quickly.”
This is an of import introductory point to observe for two grounds. First, we can see how the coming of the epoch of picture taking and the large-scale industrial printing imperativeness facilitated the rise of open uping designers such as Antoni Gaudi to the position of famous persons within their ain life-time. Without the victory of engineering and the knock-on consequence that this had for the airing of art during the late 19th century, we can merely inquire whether Gaudi would hold become the quintessential CatalanModernismoof his clip because – as we shall see – backing was the economic jussive mood that underpinned all of his Spanish architecture. Second, we can see how the internationalization of art at this clip had a profound and permanent impact upon Antoni Gaudi’s late 19th century and early 20th century work with a discernable merger between art nouveau, Mediterranean, Gothic, Catalan and naturalism prevalent throughout. Therefore, whereas the 1880s and 1890s witnessed the impact of the merger of different engineerings and civilizations upon art, Gaudi, the modernists and the adherents of art nouveau to whom he was inexorably attached would blend a assortment of different and frequently viing manners together in order to reinvent the landscape of 20th century art and architecture. It is towards the reinvention of art and architecture as viewed from the position of the work of Antoni Gaudi that we must now turn our attending.
Antoni Gaudi The Architect
It was into the unprecedented European artistic detonation of new thoughts which modernism heralded and the merger of different, frequently viing manners which this entailed that Antoni Gaudi stepped into when he began to do a name for himself in his native Catalonia during the 2nd half of the 19th century. Crucially, Gaudi came from a manual, originative household of coppersmiths established in Reus in Catalonia, which grounded the immature designer in the nucleus accomplishments needed to sculpt and plan big graduated table, artistic undertakings. As Raymond Carr ( 2001: 215 ) notes, “he [ Gaudi ] drew on local trade traditions, particularly ironwork.” This combination of Catalan cultural tradition and the innate accomplishments of the manual work force conspired to will Gaudi with the needed properties to go an designer. Furthermore, they would ( in add-on to Gaudi’s fancy for nature and the inspiration that this provided for his art ) , become a revenant subject in the expounding of some of his finest and most mature pieces of work. The consequence of the architect’s natural understanding both of the different belongingss of the stuffs that he used and of the natural signifiers which inspire all genuinely great pieces of art constituted [ 1 ] , in concurrence with the permeant sense of modernism brushing across the European continent at the clip, the natural stuffs for the beginning of a glittering and revered artistic calling.
Gaudi received his first committee for work in 1869 and throughout the 1870s and 1880s he received extra committees to plan freshly stylish flat edifices in the Catalan capital of Barcelona. Clearly, it was Gaudi’s unconditioned originative head that was able to liberate itself from the restraints of the resurgence motions of the recent yesteryear that was perfectly critical to the constitution of the Gaudi the designer as a famed icon of Catalan civilization. Yet, while this was clearly the instance we should besides observe the critical portion played by the metropolis of Barcelona itself in the amazingly rapid graduation of Gaudi the student to Gaudi the maestro during the concluding decennaries of the 19th century when the designer was commissioned to plan some of the most desired landmarks in the metropolis. We should accordingly understand Barcelona, with its vivacious sense of independent patriotism and its economic prosperity, every bit moving as the vehicle through which Gaudi was able to research his most profound artistic visions. Therefore, we must besides understand the burgeoning cultural, economic and political nervus Centre of Barcelona as playing an built-in portion in the lift of Gaudi from gifted designer to originative mastermind, a point which Raymond Carr underlines:
“If, by 1900, Madrid had become the fiscal, administrative and educational capital of Spain, Barcelona was a metropolis with an independent in-between category civilization based on commercialism and industry and unfastened to influences from abroad. Like Madrid it knocked down much of its old one-fourth to do manner for tree-lined avenues and new upper category residential quarters. The daring architecture – in Gaudi, Catalonia produced an designer of mastermind – expressed the assurance of her millionaires, whereas the rich in Madrid built conventional palaces.” ( Carr, 2001:36 )
This sense of artistic freedom prevalent in Barcelona ( which was, as Carr suggests, brought about wholly by the success of the commercialism of the region’s in-between categories ) was, it should be noted, offset by a deep-rooted conservativism fuelled by spiritual excitements which afflicted the huge bulk of Spain during the late 19th century and early 20th century. This sense of conservativism and deep-rooted spiritual excitement would be recreated by Gaudi in much of his ulterior work when spiritual strong belief became the finding ideological characteristic in his life, supplying the drift for the contrary nature of his art which we alluded to in the debut. However, while faith became the cardinal characteristic of his ulterior work, during the early portion of his calling, Gaudi was really much a merchandise of the free expressionism which characterised modernism and the art nouveau manner that had swept across Europe at the clip whereupon he designed edifices in the Catalan capital of Barcelona which combined “entirely free, asymmetrical, jagged planes with fiercely excessive and arbitrary signifiers so that there are no consecutive walls, no right angles and everything undulates in an unprecedentedly organic interplay of exterior and interior.” ( Honour and Fleming, 2005:725 )
If, for case, we pause to analyze the undulating signifier of the outside of Gaudi’sCasa Mila( 1905-1910 ) in Barcelona ( figure 1 ) we can see the extent to which the old conventions refering to architectural construction and design had been cast aside by an creative person fuelled by a desire to perpetually stretch the boundaries of the new.
Here we can clearly see the impact of the deficiency of right angles and consecutive walls in add-on to the disintegration of signifier that has permitted the creative person to interpret some of the more bizarre thoughts of art nouveau into the bricks and howitzer of a civic edifice. The construction of the edifice appears as though is constructed of a serious of baies reminiscent of the forest in nature. Viewed from this position, we can understand the extent to which nature ( particularly the manner in which nature manipulated signifier and visible radiation ) impinged upon Gaudi’s radical reading of art nouveau with the outside of theCasa Miladeploying “the usage of curves derived from natural forms.” ( Moffett, Fazio and Wodehouse, 2008:434 ) Therefore, we can see how art and architecture were, every bit far as Antoni Gaudi was concerned, the last safety of nature ; the incredulous signifiers witnessed in the wild recreated in vivid, modern-day urban architecture.
Looking beyond the outside of theCasa Milaand within the confines of the edifice itself, we can see grounds of the architect’s other great passion – the intermeshing of natural metals ( peculiarly Fe and Cu ) with the rock model of the edifice. If, for illustration, we pause to analyze the balconies of the flat edifices housed within theCasa Milacomplex ( figure 2 ) we can see how Gaudi used metal as a agency of farther beef uping the structure’s association with nature.
There were a sum of 30 three of these flattened ironwork bannisters clearly seeable in the image above and each of these bannisters was made from recycled Fe emanating from disused bannisters, grills and membranophones. Therefore, non merely was Gaudi’s edifice unusually environmentalist in its executing it was besides intensely organic with the riveting and welding of the Fe into the masonry stand foring “collages inspired by flora, the sea and the mountains” ( Avery, 2004:145 ) .
This merger of nature and art evident in theCasa Milacomposite would be mimicked in the merger of Catalan civilization, architecture and modern-day design in some of Gaudi’s before architectural pieces. Although Gaudi was merely responsible for the redevelopment of the outside, the facade of theCasa Batllo( figure 3 ) , for illustration, appears as the quintessentially Catalan constructing built from Montijuic rock: the international naming card for Barcelona at the start of the 20th century.
Once once more, Gaudi used Fe bannisters on the building’s balconies ; weaving recycled Fe to utilize as masks which conceal the entryway to the balconies representing what Derek Avery ( 2004:138 ) refers to as “an absolutely alone work of bantering avant garde art” . Furthermore, as Watkin ( 2005:562 ) declares, theCasa Batlloitself can in many ways be seen to be synonymous with Catalan civilization and Catalan mythology which has historically underpinned the region’s ceaseless thrust for liberty and independency.
“Its facade, faced with changeable pieces of broken ceramic preponderantly pale blue in coloring material, is crowned by a hump-backed roof which, with its lozenge-shaped tiles and its crested profile, resembles a firedrake. The eccentric characteristic may tempt to the fable of St. George which was an of import portion of the mythology of Catalan nationalism.”
The Baroque facade, stupefying undulating roof and the intermeshing of steel and rock within the model of the edifice renders theCasa Batllowithout uncertainty one of the most finely envisaged and like an expert executed illustrations of modern, moulded organic architecture anyplace in the universe.
Glancing, albeit briefly, at the artistic vision promulgated in the Casa Mila flat composite and theCasa Batlloedifice in Barcelona high spots merely some of the grounds why Antoni Gaudi became such a successful creative person within his ain life clip. Furthermore, these two illustrations here underscore the extent to which Gaudi was much more than merely another modernist designer. As we noted in both the abstract and the debut, Gaudi as a adult male existed beyond the parametric quantities of any one artistic motion and Gaudi’s art was likewise free from tradition or labelling. Indeed, harmonizing to Harrison and Wood ( 2002:486 ) some of Gaudi’s most of import pieces of work ought to be understood in footings of a “‘automastic’ counter to the rationalism of the Modern Movement.” This, in kernel, is to province that – at his best – Gaudi was able to make organic constructions that belied any efforts at pigeon-holing. When, for case, we look at the sweeping deficiency of artistic suppression and architectural reason which characterises the outside ofLa Pedrera( figure 4 ) , we can understand how the sort of airy manifestation of art nouveau championed by Antoni Gaudi existed far beyond the boundaries of modernism.
Although modernism should so be understood as an unprecedented, fresh expounding of art and civilization that actively sought to distance itself from the historical resurgences, art nouveau as demonstrated by Gaudi and his equals went a measure farther by disassociating itself from the slavish attachment to ground which anchored modernist art to exactly the same yesteryear that it wanted to estrange itself from. Viewed from this position, we can get down to understand the extent to which Antoni Gaudi should be considered a sort of architecturalauteurwho was obviously ready, willing and able to stomp his ain distinct and alone artistic vision upon his work without resort to an artistic motion or a originative ideal. In the concluding analysis, Gaudi was, and remains, a unquestionably distant figure and it is because of this distance that he was free to prosecute his passion instead than his backing going universe renowned in the procedure for his “uncompromising vision for organic buildings.” ( Goulding, 2005:31 )
However, we should likewise note that the innate organic qualities prevalent in his work – in add-on to the sturdy nature of his artistic vision and subsequent executing – would non hold been possible but for the extremely favorable political, cultural and economic conditions which existed in Barcelona and Catalonia in general at the clip. In footings of backing, Gaudi was an highly fortunate creative person procuring a figure of affluent frequenters to turn up the necessary financess required to prosecute his earliest pieces of work in the late 1800s and so procuring without uncertainty the most of import backing of his life in the pretense of Eusebi Guell. Thus, while we have already taken note of the significance of the portion played by the metropolis of Barcelona within Gaudi’s rise to worldwide architectural prominence we should besides detect and pay attentiveness of the paramount importance of backing to any artist’s work at this clip. As Derek Avert ( 2004:12 ) puts it: “deprivation was a thing of the yesteryear for Gaudi. The assurance that fiscal security brings enables us to show our deepest beliefs and Gaudi was no different in this respect.”
Without the artistic emancipation triggered by the economic freedom afforded by his assorted early committees and the backing secured by Eusebi Guell and his household, the designer would non hold been allowed to give all of his concluding old ages towards the completion of his most famed work,La Sagrada Familiachurch in Barcelona – a work that remains uncomplete to this twenty-four hours. The church of the Sagrada Familia high spots in a more outstanding manner than any other piece of Gaudi’s work the extent to which this assurance bred from fiscal security pervaded every aspect of the Catalan architect’s design. Indeed, towards the terminal of his calling when the completion ofLa Sagrada Familiawas uppermost in his thought, Gaudi’s assurance in both his ain ability and in his frequenters allowed him to travel so far as to make off with the really thought of design itself preferring to allow the edifice to germinate instead than to let a pre-determined program to smother the natural production of manner and signifier.
“His subsequently work was an effort to get away from all design geometry, even this more sophisticated kind, which meant acquiring rid of the projective drawing as a go-between … Gaudi spent 40 old ages on the Sagrada Familia, his concluding decennary devoted entirely to patterning, edifice, and carving it, yet at his decease the portals and transept were hardly complete.” ( Evans, 1995:333 )
The columns that maintain the construction ofLa Sagrada Familia( figure 5 ) are a aglow illustration of the open uping new waies in which the celebrated Catalan creative person was heading – free from the bonds of traditional constructs associating to geometry and design.
Whereas other creative persons may hold been content to see pillars and columns as representing little more than the base of the edifice, concentrating alternatively upon the more outstanding characteristics such as the facade, Antoni Gaudi designedLa Sagrada Familiawith every individual characteristic of the edifice uppermost in his head so that, one at a clip, he could organically make a august topographic point of spiritual worship. This is the chief ground why the church was ne’er completed in Gaudi’s ain life-time and one of the grounds why it has yet to be completed today at the morning of the 20 first century: few creative persons are able to experience confident and unafraid plenty to vie with the bequest of the great Catalan designer. In add-on, we should besides observe how the “impregnable wood of columns” ( Avery, 2004:49 ) interior of the church one time once more alludes to nature and the perfect signifier that this revealed in the artist’s airy head.
Following on from the on-going mastermind prevalent in L Sagrada Familia, we should take note of another universe celebrated piece of Gaudi architecture, the Guell Colony Crypt ( a UNESCO listed heritage site ) , which bears farther testimony to the architect’s bizarre efforts to force the boundaries non merely of geometry but besides of modernism as an artistic construct and sculpture as a tool of design. Not merely does the designer intermesh different manners refering to art nouveau and Gothic ( animating the same merger of manners found inLa Sagrada Familia) , he besides incorporated a assortment of different stuffs into the design of the construction. As a consequence, rocks, brick, cement, Fe, enamel and glass all interconnect in the Guell Colony, particularly in the Guell Colony Crypt ( figure 6 ) , in which Gaudi non merely interweaves a myriad of different stuffs to the background of a assortment of differing architectural manners, he besides distorts darkness and visible radiation in imitation of the architect’s famed love and esteem for nature.
“Antoni Gaudi created a topographic point of darkness in which columns and vaults melt into shadows, lit merely by the discoloration glassed Windowss. This chapel, instead than making a glade, recreates the wood with rock tree short pantss and coloured dappled light oozing in under a canopy of shade.” ( Unwin, 2003:41 )
Therefore, as we noted within the debut, we have every ground to construe Antoni Gaudi foremost and first as an inherently contradictory character who manipulated the modernist extremes of artistic vision in order to inculcate his ain work with an alone singularity. As we shall see when we turn our attending towards analyzing some of the cardinal societal, political and cultural influences upon his work, Gaudi clearly had a deep ideological and emotional drift driving his vision forwards with political relations and faith cabaling to act upon all of his most famed pieces of architecture. Yet even so, it must be acknowledged that the distance that must be travelled between theory and pattern in order to accomplish artistic illustriousness has rendered many an artist’s work obsolete exactly because the exalted end far outstrips the earthly endowment. The same can non be said of Antoni Gaudi the designer and creative person who successfully managed to unify his vision with his endowment bequeathing arguably the most complete catalogue of modern art nouveau architecture in Western Europe.
Antoni Gaudi the Ideologue
Analyzing the architectural end product of Antoni Gaudi has helped to foreground how the creative person went through a series of originative phases in his calling that acted as chapters to his life nailing the societal, cultural, political and – towards the terminal of his life – spiritual strong beliefs which shaped his thought and went a long manner towards modeling his work. Within these typical chapters, we can spot three extremely outstanding phases of Gaudi’s work. First, we can see grounds of the modernism tradition act uponing the political orientation of Antoni Gaudi. Modernism, as we have already ascertained, suggested a challenge to the bing artistic, aesthetic and cultural ideals of the late 19th century, representing an insult in peculiar to historical revivalism, particularly the Romantic Movement. This, harmonizing to Pericles Lewis ( 2007:37 ) represented a “crisis of representation” which modernism as a motion was unable to work out. Yet modernism was besides inexorably tied to the outgrowth of liberalism as a mainstream political political orientation, offering a political review of the condescending conservativism of Europe’s ‘ancien government’ in the same manner that modernism offered an artistic review of historical revivalism. As Paul Kelly ( 2004:3 ) observes, “political liberalism involves the acknowledgment of equal position and what is frequently referred to as the scheme of denationalization that is the acknowledgment of the demand to do controversial moral, political and spiritual positions a affair of private concern instead than a beginning of public political conflict.”
The transmutation of the populace into the private was one of the cardinal constituents of the modernist motion every bit good as a cardinal characteristic of Gaudi’s architecture. When we turn out mind back to theCasa Milaflat composite in Barcelona we can see how subjects associating to nature, patriotism and liberalism had been expressed by Gaudi in the bricks and howitzer of his art. We can, moreover, see the development of the 2nd discernable phase of the architect’s ideological development with the look of Catalan patriotism, which is most noticeable in theCasa Batlloand its latent mentions to the Catalan national colorss and the Catalan patron saint of Saint George. As a indigen of Catalonia we should non finally be surprised by Gaudi’s chauvinistic ideological inclinations. Catalan today remains a ferociously independent part of Spain purpose upon prosecuting a policy of decentralization off from the traditional and historical political nervus Centre of Madrid. However, what is singular is the extent to which the designer was able to efficaciously interpret his Catalan heritage and its incumbent nationalist political political orientation into enduring plants of cultural significance. Indeed, every bit far as theCasa Batllois concerned, we can see how the edifice has become a mention point for Catalan civilization – “a symbol which expresses assorted feelings, thoughts and emotions … a true symbol of a clearly nationalist character.” ( Guibernau, 2004:31 )
Although we should be speedy to indicate out the built-in differences between the sort of Catalan patriotism displayed by Gaudi and the more inflammatory patriotism displayed by modern-day ideologists in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia, we must admit the extent to which the thrust for political liberty for Catalonia was a major factor in Gaudi’s political development, which clearly and identifiably impacted upon his work. We should, moreover, note the extent to which Gaudi’s association with Catalan patriotism made him a house front-runner with the region’s most powerful and influential business communities who, in bend, provided the needed backing necessary for Gaudi to finishCasa Batlloand a assortment of his other urban architectural chef-d’oeuvres such asLa Pedreraand the Guell Colony. While it would be ineffectual to propose that Gaudi’s ideological association with Catalan patriotism was a merchandise of his desire to procure backing we must recognize the matrimony of convenience that had to take topographic point between the creative person and his helpers in order for Gaudi to be allowed the necessary clip, influence and infinite to finish ( with the exclusion ofLa Sagrada Familia) his work.
However, towards the terminal of his life Antoni Gaudi can be seen to hold entered a 3rd and concluding chapter of his political and ideological development, which was underpinned by an progressively robust spiritual – specifically, Roman Catholic – strong belief. The increasing artistic association with spiritual virtuousness telegraphed the displacement towards a more traditional position of architecture, a development which heralded the resurgence of the manner and signifier of the Gothic epoch in Barcelona. When, for case, we think of the neogothic towers of the church of the Sagrada Familia ( figure 7 ) we can understand how Gaudi had entered a new stage of his artistic development – one that looked to the past every spot every bit much as it did to the hereafter.
This integrating of Barcelona’s historical Gothic manner into the design ofLa Sagrada Familiahad, as the above image attests, a profound impact upon the Catalan capital’s skyline. This, in concurrence with the profoundly spiritual component to the church, which makes multiple mentions to Christ and his Apostles in add-on to utilizing light as a agency of exposing godliness within the chapel, represents the concluding chapter of Gaudi’s ideological development ; a volte face from the liberalism and modernism that characterised the gap chapter of his architectural calling and the patriotism that marked the in-between stage of his calling. In this manner, Antoni Gaudi can be seen as a symbol non merely of art but of life in general with a round form emerging where there exists no discernable beginning, center and terminal.
We have seen how Antoni Gaudi can in many ways be interpreted as an inherently contradictory figure who was at one time artistically in front of his times and yet at the same time an advocator of revisionist, conservative political beliefs that celebrated fabulous Catalan civilization and the philosophy of Roman Catholicism. This is so a unusual mixture, particularly when we consider that Gaudi was – by the clip that he entered the dusk of his calling – wholly re-writing the unwritten rulebooks of modern art and architecture even traveling so far as to make off with the thought of a design or program when it came to the ( finally unsuccessful ) completion ofLa Sagrada Familia.
We have similarly charted the political and ideological growing of the designer to observe in peculiar the manner in which the dominant societal, cultural, political and spiritual subjects of the twenty-four hours influenced the work in which he was so profoundly and so per se involved. Yet whereas the passage from modernist to nationalist to religious ideologue appears with hindsight to be easy to chart the fact remains that the artistic enterprise of Antoni Gaudi the designer was far excessively seamless and much excessively radical to be discernable by such transeunt influences as political sentiment, ideological belief or spiritual excitement. As we noted at the start of the thesis, art was, and remains, a entirely subjective phenomenon whose significance is unfastened to interpretation in a manner that far exceeds the stiff ideological parametric quantities of political relations. Therefore, Gaudi will ever be remembered as an creative person of true mastermind and echt differentiation as opposed to an influential adult male who was capable to the same fluctuations of belief and caprices of sentiment that affect humanity as a whole.
Figure 1: Case Mila ( Antoni Gaudi, Barcelona, 1905-1910 ) ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/Casa_Mila.html/cid_aj3265_b.html
Figure 2: Figure 1: Case Mila ( Antoni Gaudi, Barcelona, 1905-1910 ) ;
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/Casa_Mila.html/cid_aj1079_b.html
Figure 3: Casa Batllo ( Antonio Gaudi, Barcelona ; 1904-1906 ) ;
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.spain.info/TourSpain/Arte+y+Cultura/Monumentos/I/CP/0/Casa+Batllo? Language=en
Figure 4: La Pedrera ( Antoni Gaudi, Barcelona ; 1906-1910 ) ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.barcelonaexperience.com/spotlight/pedrera.htm
Figure 5: La Sagrada Familia ( Antoni Gaudi ; Barcelona ; 1883-1926 and after ) ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sagradafamilia.cat/docs_instit/images.htm
Figure 6: The Guell Colony Crypt ( Antoni Gaudi ; Castellfedels ; 1899-1915 ) ;
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.castelldefels.org/Turis/en/doc_generica.asp? dogid=986
Figure 7: La Sagrada Familia ( Antoni Gaudi ; Barcelona ; 1883-1926 and after ) ;
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/gallery/2008/aug/14/sagrada.familia? picture=336569705
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