Augmented Reality (AR) is a type of Virtual Environments (VE), or Virtual Reality as it is more oftenly called VE technologies. It completely immerses the user inside a synthetic environment and surrounding. While immersed, the user cannot see the real world around him.In contrast, AR permits the user to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or made up with the real world.Therefore, AR supplements reality, rather than entirely changing it.Ideally, the user would see that the virtual and real objects coincide in the same space, Figure shows an example of what this might look like.
All these things are optional also, i.e. they can be shrug off if the user wants some specific details rather than details for everything that comes in its way.AR can be thought of as the “middle ground” between VE (completely synthetic) and real (completely real).2. INTRODUCTIONAugmented reality is a technology that laminates digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of intensifying the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created surrounding. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being noted and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and many other areas.
.This article presents an picture of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. The term virtual reality was defined as “a computer made, interactive, three-dimensional environment in which a person is immersed”. There are three key points in this definition. first, this virtual environment is a computer made three-dimensional scene which requires high performance computer graphics to provide an sufficient level of realism.The second point is that the virtual world is interactive. A user needs real-time response from the system to be able to interact with it in an effective way. The last point is that the user is in this virtual environment.
One of the main marks of a virtual reality system is the head mounted display worn by users. These displays block out the entire outside world and present to the wearer a view that is under the full control of the computer. The user is completely in an artificial world and becomes isolated from the real environment. A very visible difference between these two types of systems is the depth of the system.
Virtual reality strives for a completely immersive environment. The visual, and in some systems aural and proprioceptive, senses are in the control of the system.On the other hand, an augmented reality system is augmenting the real world scene necessitating that the user maintains a sense and a feel of presence in that world. The virtual images are mixed with the real view to create the augmented display. There must be a mechanism to mix the real and virtual that is not there in any other virtual reality work. Developing and creating the technology for merging the real and virtual image streams is an active research topic.
3. MOTIVATIONAugmented Reality (AR) is a variation of Virtual Environments (VE), or Virtual Reality as it is mainly called VE technologies which completely immerses an user inside a synthetic environment. While in it, the user cannot see the real world surrounding him.
In contrast, AR allows the user to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or made up with the real world. So , AR supplements reality, rather than entirely changing it. Normally, it would appear to the user that the virtual and real objects coexisted in the same space, Figure shows an example of what this might look like. All these things are optional also, i.e. they can be shrugged off if the user wants some specific details rather than details for everything that comes in its way. AR can be thought of as the “middle ground” between VE (entirely synthetic) and tele presence (entirely real).4.
SCOPE OF THE PROJECTVE technologies fully immerse a user inside a synthetic environment. While immersed, the user cannot see the real world around him. In contrast, AR allows the user to see the real world, with virtual objects placed on upon or made up with the real world.
Therefore, AR supplements reality, rather than completely changing it. Ideally, it would be seen to the user that the virtual and real objects coexisted in the same space, Figure shows an example of what this might look like. All these things are optional also, i.e. they can be ignored if the user wants some precise details rather than details for everything that is there.
AR can be thought of as the “middle ground” between VE (totally synthetic) and tele presence (totally real).This survey defines AR as systems that have the following three characteristics:1) Mixes real and virtual2) Interactive in real time3) Registered in 3-D5. LITERATURE SURVEY1.”Low-delay video control in area network for augmented reality” by R. Razaavi, M. Fleurry, M. Ghanbarri.
Augmented reality system has a feature called as personal area network (PAN), which is used for sending modified video for real-time display. Low-delay communication of encoded video over a Bluetooth wireless PAN is achieved in desirable channel conditions by a combination of dynamic packaging of video slices altogether with centered and predictive rate control. The result is very less packet delay (below 0.05 s) and high-quality 40 dB video, with packet loss limited to 4 from radio frequency noise.
Where channel conditions result in errors, dynamic rate change is introduced to minimize the need for packet retransmission and improve power efficiency.2.”Efficient verification of holograms using augmented reality” by A. D.
Harrtl, C. Arrth, J. Grrubert, D. Schhmalstieg.Paper documents such as passports, visas and banknotes are again and again checked by inspection of security elements. Specifically, optically variable devices such as holograms are very important, but hard to inspect. Augmented Reality can provide all information on standard mobile devices. But, hologram verification on mobiles is slow and takes long and gives lower accuracy than inspection by human individuals using suitable reference information.
We aim to focus on these drawbacks by automatic matching combined with a special parametrisation of an efficient goal-oriented user interface which supports navigation. We first find out a series of similarity measures for matching hologram patches to give a sound basis for automatic decisions. Then a re-parametrised user interface is introduced based on observations of typical user behaviour during document capture. These measures help to minimize capture time to approximately 15s with better decisions regarding the evaluated samples than what can be achieved by new users.3.”Privacy preserving cloth try-on using mobile augmented reality” by S. A.
Sekhavat.Virtual try-on applications make it possible for buyers to watch themselves wearing different garments without physically trying on them. The approach for virtual try-on has been based on virtual fitting rooms, in which cameras are used to identify the skeleton and posture of a user in order to render a garment on the user’s image. Although this approach has been applied successfully using various techniques, the privacy of users can be compromised as some users might be hesistant to be in front of cameras in a fitting room. This paper proposes a different approach that allows a user to watch a three-dimensional (3D) model of her/him wearing garments on a mobile device using augmented reality (AR). Among 3D human models that are automatically made, a model selection is proposed that makes it possible to find the right size model representing the anthropometric features of the user.
This approach is with body customization and face generation modules to generate a realistic representation. Many quantitative experiments as well as user studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, usefulness, and privacy of the proposed technique.4. “Real-time radiometric made up for optical see-through head-mount” by T. Langlilotz, M.
Cook H. Regenenbrecht.Optical see-through head-mounted displays are nowdays seeing a transition out of research labs for the consumer-oriented market. However, whilst availability has increased and prices have decreased, the technology has not matured much. Most commercially available optical see-through head mounted displays follow a same principle and use an optical combiner blending the physical surrounding with digital information. This approach yields problems as the colours for the overlaid digital information cannot be correctly reproduced. The pixel colours are always a result of the displayed pixel colours and the colours of the current physical environment seen through the head-mounted display.
In this paper we present a same approach for mitigating the effect of colours -blending in optical see-through head-mounted displays by introducing a real-time radiometric compensation. Our approach is based on a novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display that allows the capture of the current surrounding as seen by the user’s eye. We present three different algorithms using this prototype to compensate colours blending in real-time and with pixel-accuracy. We demonstrate the advantages and performance as well as the results of a user study.
We see application for all common Augmented Reality scenarios but also for other areas such as Diminished Reality or supporting colour-blind people5. “Advanced Medical Display: A Literature Review of Augmented Reality” by Tobias Sielihorst , Marco Feueerrstein,Nassir Nanvab.The impressive development of medical imaging technology during the past decades provided physicians with an increasing and higher amount of patient specific anatomical and functional data. In addition, the increasing use of non-ionizing real-time imaging, in particular ultrasound and optical imaging, during surgical procedures created the need for design and development of new visualization and display technology is allowing physicians to take full benefits of rich sources of heterogeneous preoperative and intra-operative data. During 90’s, medical augmented reality was proposed as a paradigm bringing new visualization and interaction solutions into perspective. This paper not only reviews the related literature but also forms the relationship between subsets of this body of work in medical augmented reality. It also discusses the other challenges for this young and active multidisciplinary research community.
6. “A User Study Trends in Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality Research” by Si Jung Jun Kim.Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are becoming a part of everyday life with the advancement of other technologies like computer vision systems, sensing technologies, graphics, mobile computing, etc. Their primary target is to help users to attain their goals effectively and efficiently with satisfaction. This paper shows the trends of how user studies have been used into AR and VR papers published in two major conferences over the past years.
In addition, this paper presents implications on what needs to be considered when planning a user study in the field of AR and VR research.7. “Virtual/Mixed/Augmented Reality Laboratory Research for the Study of Augmented Human and Human-Machine Systems” by Kajj Helen , Jaakko Karjinen , Timo Kuula , Nicolas PhilipponIn this work we show a new research concept called Augmented Human, and consider how it may benefit from prior researches. In essence, the paper describes the long research history of a specific Virtual/Mixed/Augmented Reality (VR/MR/AR) laboratory and reflects how it may well be used as a premise for Augmented Human research and the design of new human-machine systems. The paper shortly describes how constitutive laboratory research has already been employed for years in more than a hundred company cases, which have exploited participatory design and human-centered design for the human-machine system development and advancement. The paper talks further about how the latest cases have moved closer to the human boundary level and thus oriented towards Augmented Human research.
This fifth generation VR/MR/AR/AH laboratory has taken the form of an open cave-like environment with a motion platform, 3D sound, haptics, VR/AR Head-mounted displays and physical objects.8. “An introduction to Augmented Reality with applications in aeronautical maintenance” by Mauricio Hinacapié ; Andrea Caponiou ; Horacio Riuos ; Eduardo Gonazález MendívilaAugmented Reality is a breakthrough technology that could considerably make execution of complex operations simpler.
Augmented Reality mixes virtual and actual reality, making available to the user new tools to ensure efficiency in the transfer of knowledge for various processes and in several environments. Various different solutions based on Augmented Reality have been proposed by the research community: particularly in maintenance operations Augmented Reality tools have been offered new perspectives and have promised very dramatic improvements. On the other side Augmented Reality is an extremely demanding technology and, nowdays, it is s affected by serious flaws that undermine its implementations in the industrial context. This paper presents examples of Augmented Reality applications and shows the feasibility of Augmented Reality solutions in maintenance tasks, underlining advantages it could be introduced. At the same time the principal flaws of Augmented Reality are commented and possible lines of investigation are suggested.6. METHODOLOGY Fig 6.1 Block diagram of Augmented RealityIn this block diagram we use 8051 microcontroller which is connected to the PC via serial port.
8051 microcontroller is connected to relay driver ULM 2003 which is connected to the home appliances. Web-cam is used to capture the desired area where the virtual frames will be created. 8051 is a 8 bit micro controller with an internal ram of 256 bytes. ULN2003 .It is a Darlington array which deals with high-voltage and high-current and acts a a switch. All the components can be connected to a home PC.
8. CONCLUSIONHere we made a virtual switch in augmented reality using RC controller ULM2003. A web cam is used and is attached to PC which covers the desired area which captures the intensity change in the pixels. 8051 microcontroller is used with relay driver ULM2003 which acts as a switch and controls the various devices.This can be really helpful to people who are disabled and cannot move much or old people as well by making things easy for them.
In swimming pool areas where there’s a lot of water and conventional switches can be dangerous and may cause short circuit. Hence its very safe as well. In oil industries where the mechanical switches often jam and touchscreen doesn’t work. This will not have any such problems.
Augmented reality is another step further into the digital age as we will soon see our environment change dynamically either through a Smartphone, glasses, car windshields and even windows in the near future to display enhance contents and media right in front of us. This has amazing application that can very well allow us to live our lives more productively, more safely and more informatively.