AUTOMATEDMATCH BOX BASE FOLDINGM.
Periyasamy UG Scholar, Department of EEE,Kongu Engineering CollegePerundurai, Erode-638 060periyassbe @gmail.com M.RamyaUG Scholar, Department of EEE,Kongu Engineering CollegePerundurai, Erode-638 [email protected] Scholar,Department of EEE,Kongu EngineeringCollegePerundurai,Erode-638 [email protected] M.SabarimuthuAssistant Professor,Department of EEEKongu Engineeering College,Perundurai,Erode-638 060 [email protected] Abstract: The economicdevelopment of an country is measured on the basis of the industrialization.
Even though the technology has been developed worldwide, still there is aproblem, which includes the production of matchbox base folding is done manually.With the increased number of workers for matchbox production, but their production output is very low. Thisalso increases the risk of various health problems to the workers. Since the processis continuously repeated, it filling matchsticks may create stress to workers.
In order to overcome these issues, wehave designed an automated match box base folding. This paper describes abouthow automated matchbox folding box has been designed. Through this project, theproductivity of company increases with less time consumption .
It reduces thelarge amount of labor cost and also decreases stress to workers.Keywords: DC motor,conveyor belt ,stepper motor, microcontroller IIntroductionMatch industries are utmost necessity in the everyday life of humanbeings. The origin of the match industry dates back to new stone-age. Matchindustry has mass production and provides employment opportunities to thesociety. It plays a vital role in building up the economic structure of the society. Sweden is the famous andoldest manufacturer of match industry. The major market areas are Delhi,Gujarat and Rajasthan.
The small match factories could not meet the totalrequirements of the country. However, Indiabegan to import matches from Sweden and Japan. Packing is the final stageprocess in the manufacturing industrywhich is the important process ,as it determines the production rate of amanufacturing industry. Hence the production rate of the company decreases andit also has some limitations such as migration of labors, hike for increase inwages, handling of those sticks directly in hand may serious health hazards tothe labor. So we created the automated matchbox base folding machine at lowcost. Senthil etall1designed the automatic match box filling machine with the production rateof the company increases. The production cost of the product has beendecreased.
There is no need of thinking about the hikes on increases in wagesand the absence of labor doesn’t affect the productivity of the company.Mahajan etall2proposed an easy T-shirt Folding machine is an automatic motor controlledt-shirt folding machine to fold T-shirts merely by pressing a button. Here theyused four DC gear motors to control the motion of the folding part and rotatesaccording to the program which uses microcontroller. The microcontrollercontrols the overall motion of the foldingSenthil et all3proposed an “Automatic match box filling machine” which deals aboutautomatic filling of match sticks in the match box which increases theproduction and decreases the cost.
HaniBuri 4 proposed about domain folding of plate structures. This makes complexgeometries developed by economic ways. Mahajanet all5 proposed T-shirt folding machine discussed about T-shirtsautomatically using DC gear motors. This provide easy and full automatictechnique to fold t-shirts and reduce human works.
II ProposedMethod The proposed method designed an automated folding match box baseand apply glue on it together, at low cost for middle class people with theadvantages of · Reducemanual works· Increaseperfections· Timeand energy consumption The block diagramof proposed system is shown in the figure 2.1 Figure 2.1 Proposed Block DiagramThecomponents required for the proposed system includes: DC motor, stepper motor,conveyor belt and microcontroller. 2.1 DC Motor A DC motor is mechanically commutatedelectric motor powered from DC current shown in the figure 2.2.The stator is stationary in space bydefinition and therefore the current in the rotor is switched by the commutatorto also be stationary in space.
The relative angle between the stator and rotormagnetic flux is maintained near 90 degrees, which generates the maximum torque.DC motor has rotating armature winding .For permanent magnet non -rotatingarmature magnetic field and a static field winding are present.
Figure 2.2 DC Motor Thespeed of a DC motor can be controlled by changing the voltage or currentapplied to the armature. Modern DC motors are often controlled by powerelectronics system called DC drives. We have used 12V DC motor with a speedrange of 60rpm . The motor operation is based on principle called simpleelectromagnetism. A simple 2-pole DC electric motor(here red represents a magnetor winding with a “North Polarization ” while green represents amagnet or winding with a “South “polarization).Figure 2.
3 DC Motor workingEvery DC motorhas six basic parts namely: axle, rotor, stator, commutator, field magnet and brushes.In most common DC motors the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets. The stator is the stationary part of the motorwhere as the rotor is rotating part. The rotor consists of core winding, whichconnects electrically to the commutator. DC motor working is shown in figure4.2 Operation:Thegeometry of the brushes, commutator contacts and rotor windings are given tothe power, the polarities get energized the above windings and stator magnetare misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with thestator fields magnet.
As the rotor reaches alignment ,the brushes move to thenext commutator contacts and energize the next winding. For two-pole motor, therotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor windings andavoids “dead spots” in commutator.2.2 Stepper Motor A stepper motor is a brushless DC motor that divides a full rotationinto number of equal steps. Brushed DC motors rotate continuously, when DC voltage is applied to their terminals.The stepper motor converts a train of input pulses into an increment in the shaftposition shown in figure 2.
4. Each pulse moves the shaft through a fixed angle. Fig 2.4 Stepper MotorOperation:Stepper motor consistsof electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron.
Theelectromagnets are energized by an external drive circuit or a microcontroller.To make the motor shaft turn first, one electromagnet given power, which magneticallyattracts the gear teeth. When the gear teeth are aligned to the firstelectromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. This means that when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turnedoff, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one and the process getrepeats.
Each rotation is “step” with an integer number of stepsmaking a full rotation. Bipolar motors have a single winding per phase. The current in awinding needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole. The windingsobtained are better utilized and morepowerful than a unipolar motor of the same weight. This is due to the physicalspace occupied by the windings.
Stepper motor is strongly dependent on thedriver circuit. To overcome the inductance and the switch the windings quickly,one must increase the drive voltage.Thisleads to the necessity of limiting the current with the high voltage or mayotherwise induce. 2.3 Actuators An actuator is a component of a machinethat is responsible for moving or controlling the mechanism or system. Anactuator requires a control signal and asource of energy. The source may be electric current, fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. Whenthe control signal is received , theactuator responds by converting the energy into the mechanical motion shown infigure 2.
5. An electric actuator is powered by a motor that converts electricalenergy to mechanical torque. Some actuators arte intrinsically linear, such aspiezoelectric actuators. conversion between circular and linear motion iscommonly made via., few simple types of mechanism namely screw, wheel and axle.Figure 2.5 Actuators internal diagram Performance metrics for actuators includespeed, acceleration ,force, energy efficiency and considerations such as mass, volume, operating conditions,durability and so on.,2.
4Conveyor Belt A conveyor belt is object carrying medium of a belt conveyor system. Itis one of the type of conveyor system. A conveyor system consists of two ormore pulleys which get powered by moving the belt. The powered pulley is calledthe drive pulley while the unpowered pulley calls as idler pulley. The belt consists of one ormore layers as top cover, carcass and a bottom cover.
The covers are usuallyvarious rubber or plastic material. Conveyors used in industrial settingsinclude tripping mechanisms such as trip cords along the length of theconveyor. This allows for workers to immediately shut down the conveyor beltwhen problem arises.2.5MicrocontrollerThe PIC 16f877 isone of The latest products from Microchip.
I t contains all features which getdumped into a single chip which is used for specific application. The pin configurationis shown in figure 2.6 Figure2.6 Pin configuration of 16F877 III WorkingPrincipleThe base of thematch box is placed on the metal sheet. The four slidescorners of the sheetstarts folding automatically when the person press the centre portion of thebase. The two crocodile folding pins are used to complete the process. Theprocess involved in folding are shown in figure 3.1.
Figure3.1 Overview of base folding IV Design Calculation3.1 DC Motor Power Calculation Consider a total mass operated by a DC Motoris 650 grams Total mass= 250+400= 650gms (approx.) (1) We know that accelerationdue to gravity in terms of meter per seconds square Acceleration = 9.81m/s2 (2) Fromnewton’s law of motion, Force=Mass*Acceleration (3) Substitute(1)&(2)in(3) Force=650*9.81=6.
38N (4) Torque= Force*distance (5) Distance between linear stand,d=0.025m (6) Substitute (4)&(6) in (5) Torque =6.38*0.
025 = 0. 01625 Nm (7)(or) 0.1595 kg.cm Let us take speed of a dc motor Speed,N =100rpm (8) Power= (2*?*N*T)/60 (9) Substitute (7)&(8) in (9) Power=(2*3.14*100*0.
01625)/60 Power=0.17W/0.000227HP (10)3.2ActuatorPower Calculation Datafrom Specifications.., 1.InpuVoltage :12 V 2.Max.
PushLoad: 1500N 3.Max.Pull Load: 1200N 4.Speed N : 5.7mm/sec 5.
At NoLoad : <0.5A 6.AtMax Load : 3A Pmax =V *I max (11) Substitute (11)&(12) in (13) Pmax =12*3 =36W/0.048HP (12) V Estimation Cost FixedCost1.TotalMech,Setup Cost : 1500 rs2.Actuators (2) :1400 rs 3.
Dc Motor(4) : 1200 rs —————— 4100 rs ——————Variable CostMaintenance Cost: (Depends upon Maintenance) 1.Powerconsumed by Actuators : 96 W 2.Power Consumed by DC Motor: 8W ———— 104W WattageUsed per Day: Operating Cost: 250W*8hr=2000W/DayWattage Used per Month: 2KW*30= 60 Units Approx. cost: 60*3=rs.180VI Hardware ImplementationThe hardware implementation were shownin figure 6.1.
Here the balancing legs provides the enough mechanical support tobalance on its own. The DC motor is attached to the circular disc.The hardwareworks on Crank Shaft principle which converts rotatry motion into linear motion. Figure 6.1Hardware Implementation VII Conclusion and Future ScopeThis paper proposed that the automatic matchbox base folding process andwith hardware implementation .Thus the proposed method increased the production rate of the company and decreases the production cost.
Absence of labour does not affect the productivity of the company. The advantages are reduction of noise, pollution,trade union and time reduction for match box folding . The future scope of this paper are cost ofpower supply has been reduced by using the solar energy.
The arrangement of thehardware setup can be easily reassemble to any other places.REFERENCES1 Mukesh P. Mahajan ,Srishti PrasadTejalBinnar, Nashik Monika Tamb, “Automatic T shirt Folding ” International Journal of ComputerApplications., (0975 – 8887) Volume 162 – No 10, March 20172 Shriraman, T & S,Senthil&Vellaichamy, Ragavanandham,An innovative design of automatic matchbox filling machine. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 10.3882.June 20163Masahirotaketsugu,Kunioniuchi,yoshiharukushiya,”Newbox making machine” Mitsubishi heavy industries, ltd.
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