AUTOMATED measured on the basis of the industrialization.



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UG Scholar, Department of EEE,

Kongu Engineering College

Perundurai, Erode-638 060




UG Scholar, Department of EEE,

Kongu Engineering College

Perundurai, Erode-638 060

[email protected]


UG Scholar,
Department of EEE,

Kongu Engineering

Erode-638 060

[email protected]



Assistant Professor,Department of EEE

Kongu Engineeering College,

Perundurai,Erode-638 060

[email protected]



Abstract: The economic
development of an country is measured on the basis of the industrialization.
Even though the technology has been developed worldwide, still there is a
problem, which includes the production of matchbox base folding is done manually.
With the increased number of workers for matchbox production,  but their production output is very low. This
also increases the risk of various health problems to the workers. Since the process
is continuously repeated, it filling matchsticks may create stress to  workers. In order to overcome these issues, we
have designed an automated match box base folding. This paper describes about
how automated matchbox folding box has been designed. Through this project, the
productivity of company increases with less time consumption . It reduces the
large amount of labor cost and also decreases stress to workers.

Keywords: DC motor
,conveyor belt ,stepper motor, microcontroller



Match industries are  utmost necessity in the everyday life of human
beings. The origin of the match industry dates back to new stone-age. Match
industry has mass production and provides employment opportunities to the
society. It plays a vital role in building 
up the economic structure of the society. Sweden is the famous and
oldest manufacturer of match industry. The major market areas are Delhi,
Gujarat and Rajasthan. The small match factories could not meet the total
requirements of  the country. However, India
began to import matches from Sweden and Japan. Packing is the final stage
process in the  manufacturing industry
which is the important process ,as it determines the production rate of a
manufacturing industry. Hence the production rate of the company decreases and
it also has some limitations such as migration of labors, hike for increase in
wages, handling of those sticks directly in hand may serious health hazards to
the labor. So we created the automated matchbox base folding machine at low

Senthil et
all1designed the automatic match box filling machine with the production rate
of the company increases. The production cost of the product has been
decreased. There is no need of thinking about the hikes on increases in wages
and the absence of labor doesn’t affect the productivity of the company.

Mahajan et
all2proposed an easy T-shirt Folding machine is an automatic motor controlled
t-shirt folding machine to fold T-shirts merely by pressing a button. Here they
used four DC gear motors to control the motion of the folding part and rotates
according to the program which uses microcontroller. The microcontroller
controls the overall motion of the folding

Senthil et all3
proposed an “Automatic match box filling machine” which deals about
automatic filling of match sticks in the match box which increases the
production and decreases the cost.

Buri 4 proposed about domain folding of plate structures. This makes complex
geometries developed by economic ways.


et all5 proposed T-shirt folding machine discussed about T-shirts
automatically using DC gear motors. This provide easy and full automatic
technique to fold t-shirts and reduce human works.


II Proposed

  The proposed method  designed an automated folding match box base
and apply glue on it together, at low cost for middle class people with the
advantages of

manual works


and energy consumption


The block diagram
of proposed system is shown in the figure 2.1


Figure 2.1 Proposed Block Diagram

components required for the proposed system includes: DC motor, stepper motor,
conveyor belt and microcontroller.



2.1 DC Motor

              A DC motor is mechanically commutated
electric motor powered from DC current shown in the figure  2.2.The stator is stationary in space by
definition and therefore the current in the rotor is switched by the commutator
to also be stationary in space. The relative angle between the stator and rotor
magnetic flux is maintained near 90 degrees, which generates the maximum torque.
DC motor has rotating armature winding .For permanent magnet non -rotating
armature magnetic field and a static field winding are present.



Figure 2.2 DC Motor


speed of a DC motor can be controlled by changing the voltage or current
applied to the armature. Modern DC motors are often controlled by power
electronics system called DC drives. We have used 12V DC motor with a speed
range of 60rpm . The motor operation is based on principle called simple
electromagnetism. A simple 2-pole DC electric motor(here red represents a magnet
or winding with a “North Polarization ” while green represents a
magnet or winding with a “South “polarization).

Figure 2.3 DC Motor working

Every DC motor
has six basic parts namely: axle, rotor, stator, commutator, field magnet and brushes.
In most common DC motors the external magnetic field is produced by high
-strength permanent magnets. The stator is the stationary part of the motor
where as the rotor is rotating part. The rotor consists of core winding, which
connects electrically to the commutator. DC motor working is shown in figure


geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts and rotor windings are given to
the power, the polarities get energized the above windings and stator magnet
are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the
stator fields magnet. As the rotor reaches alignment ,the brushes move to the
next commutator contacts and energize the next winding. For two-pole motor, the
rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor windings and
avoids “dead spots” in commutator.

2.2 Stepper Motor


A stepper motor is a brushless
 DC motor that divides a full rotation
into number of equal steps. Brushed DC motors rotate continuously,  when DC voltage is applied to their terminals.
The stepper motor converts a train of input pulses into an increment in the shaft
position shown in figure 2.4. Each pulse moves the shaft through a fixed angle.


Fig 2.4 Stepper Motor


Stepper motor consists
of electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The
electromagnets are energized by an external drive circuit or a microcontroller.
To make the motor shaft turn first, one electromagnet given power, which magnetically
attracts the gear teeth. When the gear teeth are aligned to the first
electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next  electromagnet. This means that when the next electromagnet
 is turned on and the first is turned
off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one and the process get
repeats. Each rotation is “step” with an integer number of steps
making a full rotation. Bipolar motors have a  single winding per phase. The current in a
winding needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole. The windings
obtained are better utilized  and more
powerful than a unipolar motor of the same weight. This is due to the physical
space occupied by the windings. Stepper motor is strongly dependent on the
driver circuit. To overcome the inductance and the switch the windings quickly,
one must increase  the drive voltage.This
leads to the necessity of limiting the current with the high voltage or may
otherwise induce.



2.3 Actuators

    An actuator is a component of a machine
that is responsible for moving or controlling the mechanism or system. An
actuator requires a control signal and  a
source of energy. The source may be electric current,  fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. When
the control signal is  received , the
actuator responds by converting the energy into the mechanical motion shown in
figure 2.5. An electric actuator is powered by a motor that converts electrical
energy to mechanical torque. Some actuators arte intrinsically linear, such as
piezoelectric actuators. conversion between circular and linear motion is
commonly made via., few simple types of mechanism namely screw, wheel and axle.

Figure 2.5 Actuators internal diagram

   Performance metrics for actuators include
speed, acceleration ,force, energy efficiency 
and considerations such as mass, volume, operating conditions,
durability and so on.,

Conveyor Belt

          A conveyor belt is object  carrying medium of a belt conveyor system. It
is one of the type of conveyor system. A conveyor system consists of two or
more pulleys which get powered by moving the belt. The powered pulley is called
the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley calls  as idler pulley. The belt consists of one or
more layers as top cover, carcass and a bottom cover. The covers are usually
various rubber or plastic material. Conveyors used in industrial settings
include tripping mechanisms such as trip cords along the length of the
conveyor. This allows for workers to immediately shut down the conveyor belt
when problem arises.


The PIC 16f877 is
one of The latest products from Microchip. I t contains all features which get
dumped into a single chip which is used for specific application. The pin configuration
is shown in figure 2.6



2.6 Pin configuration of 16F877


III Working

The base of the
match box is placed on the metal sheet. The four slidescorners of the sheet
starts folding automatically when the person press the centre portion of the
base. The two crocodile folding pins are used to complete the process. The
process involved in folding are shown in figure 3.1.



3.1 Overview of base folding

  IV Design Calculation

3.1 DC Motor Power Calculation

      Consider a total mass operated by a DC Motor
is 650 grams

     Total mass= 250+400= 650gms (approx.)               (1)

      We know that acceleration
due to gravity in terms of meter per seconds square

   Acceleration = 9.81m/s2                                      (2)

newton’s law of motion,

         Force=Mass*Acceleration                                  (3)


 Force=650*9.81=6.38N                                         (4)               Torque
= Force*distance                                                 (5) Distance between linear stand,
d=0.025m                      (6)                          

           Substitute (4)&(6) in (5)

    Torque =
6.38*0.025 = 0. 01625 Nm                       (7)



        Let us take speed of a dc motor   

      Speed,N =
(8)              Power= (2*?*N*T)/60                                                  (9)

Substitute (7)&(8) in (9)

                                   Power=(2*3.14*100*0.01625)/60      Power=0.17W/0.000227HP                                             (10)

3.2ActuatorPower Calculation

from Specifications..,    

Voltage  :12 V                

Load:     1500N

        3.Max.Pull Load
:      1200N

        4.Speed N           :        5.7mm/sec     

        5.At No
Load      :       <0.5A                      6.At Max Load    : 3A                                                      Pmax  =V *I max                        (11)        Substitute (11)&(12) in (13)                     Pmax   =12*3                                      =36W/0.048HP         (12)                                    V  Estimation Cost         Fixed Cost 1.TotalMech,Setup Cost : 1500  rs 2.Actuators (2)                 : 1400 rs  3.Dc Motor(4)                 :   1200  rs                                             ------------------                                               4100  rs                                       ------------------ Variable Cost Maintenance Cost:  (Depends upon Maintenance)                                     1.Power consumed by Actuators  : 96 W             2.Power Consumed by DC Motor: 8 W                                                              ------------                                                                                   104W                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wattage Used per Day:  Operating Cost:               250W*8hr=2000W/Day Wattage Used per Month:      2KW*30= 60 Units  Approx. cost:      60*3=rs.180 VI  Hardware Implementation The hardware implementation were shown in figure 6.1.Here the balancing legs provides the enough mechanical support to balance on its own. The DC motor is attached to the circular disc.The hardware works on Crank Shaft principle which converts rotatry motion into linear motion.     Figure 6.1 Hardware Implementation    VII Conclusion and Future Scope This paper proposed that the  automatic matchbox base folding process and with hardware implementation .Thus the proposed method increased  the production rate of  the company and decreases the production cost. Absence of labour does not affect the productivity of the company. The  advantages are reduction of noise, pollution ,trade union and time reduction for match box folding  . The future scope of this paper are cost of power supply has been reduced by using the solar energy. The arrangement of the hardware setup can be easily reassemble to any other places. REFERENCES 1 Mukesh P. Mahajan ,Srishti Prasad TejalBinnar, Nashik Monika Tamb,  "Automatic T shirt Folding " International Journal of Computer Applications., (0975 – 8887) Volume 162 – No 10, March 2017 2 Shriraman, T & S, Senthil&Vellaichamy, Ragavanandham,An innovative design of automatic match box filling machine. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 10. 3882.June 2016 3Masahirotaketsugu,Kunioniuchi,yoshiharukushiya,"New box making machine" Mitsubishi heavy industries, ltd. Technical review vol. 42 no. 1 (Feb. 2005) 4  Suraj Shah, Utkarsha Mahajan," Automatic cloth folding and colour based sorting mechanism" IJTRE, Volume 2, Issue 7, March-2015 . 5 N.Gomesh, Y.M.Irwan," Photovoltaic powered T-shirt folding machine" Conference Paper in Energy Procedia ,February 2013. 6 Deepak Shroff, Paresh Somani." Automatic T-shirt folding machine". 7 folding-packaging-machines 8 manufacturing                             


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