AWARENESS for more than six months, and cause

AWARENESS ABOUT ATTENTION  DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AMONG TEENAGERS

Type of manuscript: Survey article 

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Running title : awareness about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among teenagers.

Revathi.B
Undergraduate student

Saveetha Dental College, 
Saveetha university 

Mrs.Jothi Priya.A

Department of physiology 
Saveetha Dental College 
Saveetha university 
Chennai 
Tamil Nadu  
India 

Corresponding author

Student Email: [email protected]

Contact number : 9176789720

Author name : Revathi.B

Guide name :  Mrs.Jothi Priya.A 

Year of study : l-BDS :2017-2018

ABSTRACT: 

AIM: 
 To create awareness and impart knowledge about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder .

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

It is the questionnaire based survey which was taken by 150 participants using the online link surveyPlanet. Participants were mostly adolescents who are under the age group of 12-19.

RESULTS: 

Through this survey it’s proved that nearly 50% of the participants were not able to focus well in their daily activities or tasks.Many were under great pressure and impairment due to this disorder.Since many adolescents are lacking good memory, finishing tasks and poor time management. Healthy mind and good lifestyle changes might help them to get rid of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

CONCLUSION:
It’s been analysed that Parents whose children were affected with ADHD are not aware of 
their child’s condition. Only about 60% use medications to cure this disorder and the rest are not even trying to avoid it since they could not analyse the problem or defect within them. And many are in lack of guidance to escape from this disease. If they feel confident they can improve their skills gradually and lead a happier life.

KEYWORDS:
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-symptoms-impairments-complications in their daily life- problem among society people.

INTRODUCTION:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neuro developmental type(1,2).It is characterised by problems paying attention, excessive activity, which is not appropriate for person age.The symptoms appear before a person is twelve years old, are present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, or recreational activities)(3).In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many children with ADHD have a good attention span for tasks they find interesting(6).
 
Symptoms of attention deficit disorder range from mild to severe and always interfere with normal development and daily functioning(4,5).A diagnosis of attention deficit disorder  typically requires that symptoms be present by the age of  12 and in more than one place. Attention  deficit  disorder  may  persist  into adulthood ,  creating difficulties  in one’s  occupation or social relationship. While hyperactivity and impulsivity are not always present and in  symptoms, attention deficit disorder is also referred to as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(6,7).

ADHD is more common in males than females, and females with ADHD are more likely to have problems primarily with inattention. Other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and substance abuse, are common in people with ADHD.ADHD is a disorder involving a group of key skills known as executive function. Executive function impacts the ability to focusing or  using memory, and other performance skills(11).
ADHD is caused by differences in the development of brain anatomy and wiring. It often runs in families. Everyone has symptoms of ADHD at one time or another(12).But to be diagnosed with ADHD, kids must have far more difficulty with these problems than their peers. Kids with ADHD also have challenges in more than one area—for example, at school, at home and in friendships.It’s more common in boys than in girls. It’s usually discovered during the early school years, when a child begins to have problems paying attention(15,16)
Adults with ADHD may have trouble managing time, being organised, setting goals, and holding down a job(13,14). They may also have problems with relationships, self-esteem, and addiction.Some of the teenagers suffering with ADHD have difficulties such as memory, thinking, emotions, self control etc.

They usually find difficult to manage their time and schedule. They were unable to find a pathway to establish their talents. They are easily distracted, doesn’t follow tasks, forgets about daily activities, loses things. To create awareness about anorexia among teenagers leads to better understanding.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Since this disorder is predominantly seen in teenagers or adolescents it’s been took as a survey for over 150 participants. Adolescents are under the great pressure and they feel unstable to cope up or manage with their works, daily tasks and memory. So awareness is necessary majorly among these age groups who are under 12-19. Since many people prefer online survey it is took using the link survey planet.

 RESULT AND DISCUSSION:
In the recent studies it’s been found that ADHD does not only affect children it even affects normal people and old people also.It focuses on a wide range of self-management functions linked to complexes of the brain, and these are not readily observable behaviours(12).Clinical data executes that the symptoms of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder varies from person to person. It depends upon the particular person’s interest and natural habits(5). Recent researches says that impairing symptoms of ADHD often persist well only in adulthood.Many times during childhood the symptoms are not well known(16).Some children with ADHD gradually outgrow their impairments as they get into during middle school or high school.The affected participants might experience impairments in both psychological and physiological aspects(17).

From this survey it’s been analysed that teenagers are mostly suspected to suffer from  attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.They were easily distracted and undergoes serious complications. Some main complications are inattention,hyperactivity and impulsivity.It is  the most common problem among college or school studying students. They could not concentrate on their daily works .finally it leads to outburst of temper and irritability along with refusal to do any work.

About  33.3% of participants are often having Difficulty in sustaining their attention while focusing during long lectures or while doing some other activities. Anxiety disorders may also arise due to this. It may leads to excessive worry and and difficulty controlling their worries. Person along with anxiety disorder may also experience physical symptoms like upset mind, stomach, head ache and increasing heartbeat. They find it difficult to concentrate more on their tasks and nearly half of them were not satisfied going to their schooling life. 

About 45.6% of participants are easily distracted by external stimuli. This distraction leads to poor skills and difficulty in learning and communication problems which is significant. The demands of middle and high school place additional stress on teens and parents should remain aware of their children’s habits and activities. 

 About 24% of them often lose , misplace or damage their things which is necessary.  It makes them irresponsible and leads to spoil their performances. 

About 48.3% sometimes feel restless when they are got to do something. Sleep deprivation occurs in teens. Changes in sleep cycle are normal for all adolescents, as many teenagers expect to wake up late at night and sleep later at morning. This is common, but ADHD affected  individual might suffer more with sleep disorder and mood swings.

 About 33.8% of the teenagers leave their seats in situations when they are expected to remain in their seats. This is a common impairment of hyperactivity where the individual was not able to concentrate on a single work. 

About 43.9% of the participants find themselves sometimes talking excessively. They were not under control feeling restless . They easily express their emotions and react for everything. They also feel sorry for every small things and easily distracted. In studies, not all not people who are suspected to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are talking excessively. They are influenced easily by the external force. About 34.2% of participants are finding difficulty in organising an activity and having poor time management. They act like refusing all kind of ideas and think in an unknown manner .

The school board survey analysed that  the prevalence of ADHD in Ontario of 7% to 10% of boys and nearly 3% of girls in the age of 16 years showing that it is predominantly occurs in males. While in my survey males are affected than females. The other articles says that attention is lagging while compelled to focus on long lectures , memory tasks etc while in contrast this survey analysed that participants lose their control during their hyperactive moments or prolonged focusing. About 48.3% feel restless at that time they were not under control expressing their feelings without their consciousness. Studies confirm that older people are easily suspected to forget their things or works along with this , it has became common in young people or adolescents who lack memory and forget their works which they do on regular basis. Majority of them feel restless which finally lead to improper finishing of their daily tasks, demand in setting future goals and have a blank view about their life.

S.no

Questions

Response

Number

Percentage

1

how often do you have difficulty sustaining your attention while doing something for work,school,a hobby,or fun activity (eg.remaining focused during lectures,lengthy reading or conversations)

Never 
Sometimes 
Often
Rarely 


76 
50 
22

1.3
50.7
33.3 
14.7

2

How often are you easily distracted by external stimuli?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely

3
61
68
17

2
40.9
45.6
11.4

3

How often do you have difficulty waiting your turn,such as while waiting in line?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely

6
52
41
50

4
34.9
17.5
33.6

4

How often do you lose ,misplace or damage something that’s necessary in order to get things done(eg.your phone,eyeglasses,wallet,keys)?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often
Rarely 

22
45
36 
47

14.7
30
24
31.3

5

How often do you feel restless when you got to do something?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely 


72
43
25 


48.3
33.9
16.8

6

How often do you forget to do something you do all the time?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely 

14
51
29
54

9.5
34.5
19.6
36.5

7

How often do you leave your seat in situations when remaining seated is expected?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely

35
49
7
54

14.1
33.8
4.8
37.2

8

How often do you find yourself talking excessively?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often
Rarely 

14
65
43
26

9.5
43.9
29.1
17.6

9

How often do you fidget with or tap your hands or feet ,or squirm in your seat?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often
Rarely 

20
52
39
35

13.7
35.6
26.7
24

10

How often do you have difficulty in organising an activity or task needing to get done (eg.poor time management in managing sequential tasks)?

Never 
Sometimes 
Often 
Rarely 

23
50
27
46

15.8
34.2
18.5
31.5

 
CONCLUSION:

Through this survey it’s proved that nearly 50% of the participants were not able to focus well in their daily activities or tasks.Many were under great pressure and impairment due to this disorder.Healthy mind and good lifestyle changes might help them to get rid of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. 

REFERENCE:

1 Greenhill LL, Hechtman LI (2009). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In BJ Sadock et al., eds., Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3560-3572. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 
2 National Institute of Mental Health (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (NIH Publication No. 08-3572). Available online: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/adhd_booklet.pdf. 
3 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2007). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(7): 894-921. 
4 American Academy of Pediatrics (2011). ADHD: Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 129(5): 1023-1029.
5 Upadhyaya HP (2008). Substance use disorders in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Implications for treatment and the role of the primary care physician. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 10(3): 211-221.

6 Cooper WO, et al. (2011). ADHD drugs and serious cardiovascular events in children and young adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 365(20): 1896-1904.
    7 Greenhill L, et al. (2006). Efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate treatment for preschoolers with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and adolescent Psychiatry, 45(11): 1284-1293.
8 Greenhill LL, Hechtman LI (2009). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In BJ Sadock et al., eds., Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3560-3572. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 
9      Keen D, Hadjikoumi I (2011). ADHD in children and adolescents, search date August 2009. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
10 Molina BS, et al. (2009). The MTA at 8 years: Prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(5): 484-500.
11 National Institute of Mental Health (2008). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (NIH Publication No. 08-3572). Available online: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/adhd_booklet.pdf. 
12 Rappley MD (2005). Clinical practice: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(2): 165-173. 
13 Sadock BJ, et al. ( 2007). Attention-deficit disorders. In Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry, Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry, 10th ed., pp. 1206-1217. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 
14 Stubbe D (2007). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, pp. 57-68. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 
15 Swanson J, et al. (2006). Stimulant-related reductions of growth rates in the PATS. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(1): 1304-1313.
16 Wilens TE, et al. (2004). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. JAMA, 292(5): 619-623.
    17.   Weinberg WA, Brumback WA: the myth of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: symptoms resulting from multiple causes.
   18.    Rydelius PA: Children of alcoholic parents: At risk to experience violence and to develop violent behavior, in Chiland D, Young JG (eds): Children and Violence
   19.Fisher M. Parenting stress and the child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 
    20.Lou HC ,henriksen L.,Bruhn P.,eat al: striatal dysfunction in ADHD.

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