Background Of Child And Family Children And Young People Essay

The kids name is Muhammad Syakir Bin Mas Sulaiman born on 10 January 2007. He is a Malay and six old ages old.

He is the lone kid of his household and I get to cognize him because he is my cousin. However, we seldom met as he lives far off from my topographic point. Both his parents is an pedagogue and live in a stable place environment. Stable here means they live in a proper cottage house enable the kid to hold definite basic demands include shelter, nutrient and safety. In the eventide, he can freely play around the house compound as it is 24 hours secure by the closed-circuit telecasting ( CCTV ) and surrounded by a gate. In add-on, their neighbour ‘s kid ever come to play with Shakir. The household possesses a positive life style that coexists together on a day-to-day footing and the wonts that these people have. The parents have a close relationship.

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Meanwhile, his male parent is ever committed to the household, responsible and patient. During the weekend, when both parents free from work, they will take Shakir for a walk and supply him with a healthy life style. As his male parent love to garden, he will besides fall in his male parent by making a simple undertaking like abrogation weed utilizing hand-glove for protection. I had made an observation of the kid at his place for about four hours and acquire to cognize how his kindergarten accomplishment is by mentioning to the parents and see his class book.

When I visit him in his house, he is playing with his cousins who merely arrive from Kuala Lumpur two yearss ago. He wears a simple frock with shirt and pant. He looks so happy playing around with his friends and I had taken this opportunity to detect how his interaction with his equals.

scope of physical accomplishments. My first observation of his developmental information is the big motor accomplishment growing. Santrock ( 2011 ) in his book proposes that, gross motor accomplishments involve the big musculus group and whole organic structure motion that enable activities such as walking, sitting, raising and throwing a ball. At this age, he possesses the ability to walk down stairss by jumping pess.

Observation executed in the house compound shows that he can run with control over velocity and way. In one corner, I put a rock from one point to another about 5 metres, when he reaches the terminal point I ask him to skip on one pes. He manages to run over control of the length and happen that he can skip on one pes without trouble. He is so passionate when I ask him to play for observation intent. As he ever plays with his friends, he manages to throw, gimmicks and boots balls good. Lapp goes to sit, he owns a bike that enables him to sit and decidedly able to make it. I find that six old ages old Shakir has a batch energy, he eager to make everything when it comes to play. In add-on, he has the ability to make originative motion.

He can do peace, bosom form and an All right mark by utilizing his manus.Shakir ‘s all right motor accomplishment have developed sufficiently plenty to finish authorship, pulling and other undertakings decently and expeditiously. Harmonizing to Santrock ( 2011 ) , all right motor accomplishments involve finely tuned motions which occur in organic structure portion such as fingers, and normally in coordination with the eyes. To detect his all right motor accomplishment, farther observation on her authorship, reading, art, music and dramatic drama accomplishments is made in his house ‘s life room. He able to turn bosss, palpebras and egg beaters. I can see him open the door decently although he need to lug his pess because of the boss tallness.

Besides that, he can fix and unfastens his slide fasteners and button by his ain. With sleight, he can besides pick up, insert object and cast drama dough. The best portion is when I see him pulling. He has the capacity to pull, utilize authorship tools and scissors with control. He can pull rather good and I am so impressed with his pulling. In add-on, he can besides stack a tower of block utilizing his square wooden plaything and able to hold on a crayon or pencil right.

His ability to hold on a pencil lead to a proper authorship accomplishment. From my observation, he can make most of the emergent authorship and reading accomplishments. He no longer pretends to read utilizing images to state a narrative. He already knows the alphabet and ever include letter-like signifiers in composing.

To detect all these abilities, stationary and books are required. Shakir loves feigning composing with images and scratchs. He is likely doing a few forms as so called homo with weaponries and legs. His art and music ability is besides good.

Harmonizing to his parent, Shakir prefer to pull most of his clip. With this chance, I can comprehend him pulling by making basic scribble forms, combines circles or square with crossed lines and combines object together in a image. Apart from that, he can execute all music skills including playing instruments. He owns a little keyboard and with the keyboard he plays me a vocal but I do non truly cognize what the vocal really is.

For dramatic drama accomplishments, I watch his picture when he acts in his kindergarten competition. I notice that he manages to carry through all the demands for the accomplishments. In the observation, I provide him with a plaything hoe and act as a husbandman.

He manages to feign go a husbandman and assigned that function good.From my observation of six old ages old Shakir, at this age, he able to perpetrate most of the accomplishments. It was so different at the clip he is five old ages old. His coordination and motor accomplishments become more refined, he has the ability to prosecute in games like kicking a ball, pulling and composing. But I expect there will be a broad scope of physical abilities since childs ‘ motor accomplishment are still developing at this age.

Fine motor coordination will besides go on to develop at this age. Six-years-olds will go more expert drawing and composing letters, and their images and narratives will look much more recognizable and legible. They will besides go more skilled at utilizing tools such as scissors, and will be better able to execute undertakings such as zippering or buttoning pants.

Cognitive Development

Further observation on the topic is proceeded to see his cognitive development. From the observation, Shakir can screen objects by forms and colourss. He able to acknowledge different forms and colour and can state either an object is white, black, bluish or xanthous.

In add-on, he can sort objects by size. In the experiment, I ask him to sort wooden block with three different sizes which are little, medium and large. He groups the wooden block consequently to the same size. With the cognition he had learnt in his kindergarten, he can number by rote to 20 as I ask him to recite the figure of sheep in his exercising book. Apart from that, he has the ability to expose 1 to 1 correspondence with Numberss and can larn new words rapidly.

Alternatively of English and Malay linguistic communication, he besides learns Arabic and he manages to capture new word easy. As he can compose and read, he is able to acknowledge letters and Numberss decently.At what phase of Piaget ‘s developmental phase does the kid seem to be working preoperational phase? Justify your decision by giving illustrations of what you observed.Shakir ‘s cognitive abilities are at the preoperational phase. Gordon and Bowne ( 2008 ) in their book pointed out that, during this phase, immature kids are able to believe about things symbolically. Their linguistic communication usage becomes more mature. They besides develop memory and imaginativeness, which allows them to mime the things they see. In a drama, Shakir uses his imaginativeness to be in a pretend-play with his friends.

He has besides used to conceive of himself as a hero character such as ‘ultramen ‘ who defeat the monsters. Besides that, harmonizing to Piaget, kids at this developmental phase show egoism. For illustration, Shakir will ne’er allow other to alter the telecasting plan when his favourite series is in the channel. He tries to command the distant by all the clip without allowing others to take it. It is evidently exhibit egoism whereby he encounters inability to see a state of affairs from another individual ‘s point of position.

In his thought, if he loves the plan, so everyone should love it excessively. Besides that, Shakir besides exhibits animism. Piaget provinces that animism is when a individual has belief that everything that exists has some sort of consciousness.

As Shakir loves a sketch character ‘Ben-10 ‘ so much. He owns a doll that looks like it and he will ne’er allow other people to hit the doll as in his head the doll will experience the hurting if ‘Ben-10 ‘ is beaten that manner. Another facet of pre-operational phase in a kid is ‘Moral pragmatism ‘ . This is the belief that a kid has own a sense of moral pragmatism, the kid ‘s manner of believing about the different between right and incorrect. Shakir and I play a board game called “ Snakes and ladders ” . I try to do up a new regulation to the game at which I use little Rubic with Numberss alternatively of die. He insists to utilize die as he knows die is normally known to be the regulations.

It illuminates that kids are concerned with results instead than purposes.

Explain facets of Vygotsky ‘s development theory that you were able to detect – such as interaction with household members.

Vygotsky has developed a social-cultural attack towards cognitive development. Harmonizing to Santrock ( 2011 ) , Vygotsky ‘s theory is a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how civilization and societal interaction guide cognitive development. Cognitive development of a kid is cultivated by the interaction with people in his environment that has the capacity to educate or progress in their thought like equals, parents and instructors. During my observation, I observe that Shakir ‘s parents teach him literacy and numeracy. This can modulate his cognitive development every bit good as the interaction with his parent. Furthermore, his parent invariably helps him larn how to read that can further his progress reading accomplishments and communicate to him that reading is an of import activity in their civilization.

When he goes to his kindergarten, his instructor will later help him in instruction and other accomplishments that provide him with higher mental procedures such as job resolution.

Social – Emotional Development


Harmonizing to Bartlett and Burton ( 2012 ) , Self-esteem is the manner persons think and feel about themselves and how good they do things that are of import to them. In kids, self-pride is shaped by what they think and feel about themselves. Shakir can divide from primary health professional without trouble. When I request him to attach to me to the store, he willing to follow me. He can besides finish a undertaking successfully. Apart from that, he ever stands up for his ain right and shows enthusiasm about making things for ego. For illustration, when I ask him if he is good at running and he will instantly cry ‘yes! ‘ every bit good as demonstrated his endowment to me.

Emotional development

Bartlett and Burton ( 2012 ) province that, Emotional development in kids refers to the attainment of emotional capablenesss and their enlargement as the kid grows. It provides kids the ability and accomplishments that they need to work and last in the society every bit good as the universe. Shakir releases nerve-racking feelings in an appropriate mode. When he rebels, he goes to one corner of the house and cried. He ne’er commits a negative action such as throw the vase or his plaything. His parent will take their function to carry him and assure him to purchase something he like.

He besides shows fancy, fondnesss and love towards others. He loves cat so much. Whenever he sees a scraggy cat at the house compound, he insists to supply its nutrient as he feels commiseration with it. During my observation, he seems happy most of the clip playing with his equals.

Social drama

Shakir loves to take part in group drama but sometimes, he besides plays by himself with his ain plaything. Besides that, he can easy do friendly relationships with other kids and harmonizing to his parent, he gets friend with all his kindergarten equals.

He additions entree to ongoing drama in a positive mode and resolutenesss play struggles in a positive mode excessively.

Prosocial behaviour.

Lerner and Johns ( 2009 ) province that prosocial behaviour occur when person attention about the public assistance and rights of others, act to assist another individual and moving in the manner that benefit other. I besides find out that he shows concern for person in hurt. When he sees his female parent massage her caput, he will oddly inquire “ ma, do you hold a concern ” ? He will be following to her and rub down her caput. In that manner, he besides seems to care for others in demand.

During a struggle, he manages to state how other feel. For illustration, when he watches a telecasting play, he knows the histrion is angry towards the actress. Besides that, he besides portions and give something to another. He can take bends and complies with the petition without dither.What did you detect in respects to Eric Erikson ‘s hierarchy of development?A kid of six old ages old is at Erickson ‘s 4th developmental phase which is industry versus lower status.

Children now learn to get the hang rational and the more formal accomplishments of life. For illustration, Shakir loves to mend his plaything auto. Whenever he successfully commits the undertaking, he gets congratulations from his parent. As a consequence, he strives to get the hang a new accomplishment and develop a feeling of competency and belief in his accomplishment.Briefly discusses the emotional province of the kid ( emotional development )Six old ages old Shakir express a broad scope of emotions and are really situation-specific that can alter every bit quickly as he switches from one activity to another. He displays fondenss, fondness, love towards other and erstwhile mad. He shows his pique fits through verbal instead than negative actions. For illustration, he plays with his equal merrily until one scene whereby his friend snatches his ball and he feels so huffy.

He shows his choler by stating ‘do non take my ball ‘ while indicating his finger towards the ball. Apart from that, he besides shows fondness when he sees a scraggy cat at his house compound and experience commiseration with it. Overall, I can rate his emotion as normal and he seems happy much of the clip.Attachment – Discuss what you observed in respect to the kid ‘s province of fond regard and disposition.

Disposition can impact fond regard in either a positive and negative manner, depending on the temperamental lucifer between the kid and grownup. Attachment is a close emotional bond between two people. Meanwhile, disposition involves single differences in behavioural manners, emotions and characteristic ways of reacting. Shakir has a close fond regard to his parent. He cuddles his female parent steadfastly when he feels sleepy and snog her cheek to demo his fondness to his female parent.

He is so affiliated to his female parent from his behaviour reflected. The manner he treats her female parent to demo us that he has a good disposition. From my observation, the parenting manner exhibit by Shakir ‘s parent is important. Whenever Shakir commits a error, his parent will rede him and speak to him in democratic manner instead than penalty.Discuss the attachment degree of the kid to the primary health professional.I can rate Shakir ‘s fond regard to his parent as excellent. He develops a definite secure with his parent.

The quality of fond regard between Shakir and his primary health professional is observed based on the familiarity he exhibits with his health professional that mostly determined by the health professional ‘s response to him when his fond regard system is ‘activated ‘ .Did the kid come easy to you? Make the kid interact with you easy? DiscussAt foremost, when I ask him to perpetrate some undertakings for observation intent, he reluctant tomake that as he wants to play association football with his friends. After his parent persuade him andpromise to purchase him some confects, he willing to make the undertaking.

The kid interact easywith me and reply most of my inquiries in appropriate mode.Did you notice any difference between the manner the kid socializes and interacts with grownups and the manner he/she socializes with equals?During my research, he plays an active function when socialising with his friends. He plays non-stop until he gets tired. Meanwhile, when socialising with an grownup, he changes his attitude.

He becomes more polite and sometimes seems diffident to speak to them.What appears to be the kid ‘s attitude toward school and acquisition?Shakir is so aroused when it comes to analyze and ever eager to larn new thing. When I ask him to compose and read, he work on it enthusiastically.

I see his kindergarten study book and he is making good academically. His parent has tried their best to give her tonss of positive support, and remain actively involved in his surveies and kindergarten community. Hopefully, he manages to maintain his great attitude about school in the old ages to come, and that he continues to bask his acquisition.Ask the kid to state something about his/her good friend? What makes a good friend?He states that he have a best friend name Hakim. Hakim ever accompanies him to eat at the kindergarten and portion Sweets. Both of them do a good friend as they have the same involvement which are association football and watch Ben-10, a heroic character that fight the foreigner.

Language Development

Spoken linguistic communication

He can listen but does non talk. When person gives him advice, he can pay attending and understand the content of the talk.

He can besides give short phrase responses. He likes to take portion in conversations. At the minute I talk to his parent, he besides wants to prosecute in the conversation. He tries to state things that he knows and speaks in expanded sentences. He asks inquiries when he curious about something.

For illustration, he asks “ why you use marker pen to colourise the cat? ” To show his demands, he uses linguistic communication and talk both to kids and grownups. He answers most of my question good.His linguistic communication tells me that Shakir possesses a really good personality. When I talk to him, he ne’er uses rough words that seem ill-mannered and unacceptable. He will speak courteously and hardly see he talk in high tone to grownup. However, sometime whenever he does non hold with his parent, he shows his pique fit by speaking back or rebelliousness but he will ne’er make that to a alien.

It possibly due to the egoism in the child. While I was carry oning the experiment, at first, he reluctant to make the checklist undertaking, I try to carry him a few times, but he persistently says “ Shakir wants to play ball with friends ” . He respects me as an grownup and does non rampage over the persuasion. In add-on, He loves to state the activities he did in his kindergarten.His primary linguistic communication is Malay and the linguistic communication that I use to interact with him is besides Malay. Malay is my female parent lingua. So does Shakir. As we both use Malay as the linguistic communication, it makes me easier to interact with him.

I do non happen it is hard to pass on with him as he manage to understand each word I say. Human existences are born with an unconditioned ability to larn linguistic communication. We are preprogrammed to get any cognition we are sufficiently exposed to before pubescence. Thus, I feel comfy to speak Malay to him instead than English.

Besides that, Shakir is besides exposed to other linguistic communications including English and Arabic. In his kindergarten, he gets a formal instruction of both linguistic communications that heighten his ability to talk in these linguistic communications. He uses Malay most of the clip. However, sometimes he uses English word to depict a thing.

For illustration, ‘Shakir suka fish ‘ . He does non “ coo ” and “ babble ” as he no longer a babe. However, he can talk individual words, threading a few words together and talk in complete sentences.


My overall feeling about this kid is really good. He seems to to the full developed in many facets although he is still six old ages old kid.

He gots most Ten in every subdivision. He scores all X in prosocial behavior, spoken linguistic communication, humanistic disciplines and music accomplishments and dramatic dramas accomplishment. He able to perpetrate most of the undertaking chiefly in societal drama. He is so active at the clip I observe him as there are a few childs join him playing the association football.

He loves to prosecute in group activities and seldom to see him play entirely. Shakir develop as a healthy male child with impressing accomplishment.The procedure of development largely focuses on the alteration of biological, physical, cognitive and social-emotional that started from birth till the terminal of their life.

In add-on, developmental procedure is qualitative and can non be measured, but it can be perceived through the outgrowth of the new features. From my research, I find that all these alterations happen are stable and it takes topographic point bit by bit and consistently. The topic I observe is at preoperational phase. His behaviour, emotion every bit good as cognitive development is conformity to Piaget ‘s theory of cognitive development.

The procedure of alterations in the topic will continuously happen through different phase of ripening that refers to the natural alterations due to genetic sciences and is influenced by the environment.


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Bartlett, S. & A ; Burton, D. ( 2012 ) . Introduction to instruction surveies ( 3rd edition ) . Great Britain. Sage.Lerner, J.

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W ( 2008 ) . Beginnings and beyond: Foundations in early childhood instruction ( 7th edition ) . United States. Thomson Delmar Learning.