Bell PendonMr. O’MalleyEuro-American Cultures 10 Period 120 December 2017 The Tariff of 1828 Once the War of 1812 was declared over, many taxes on imported goods, or tariffs, were passed on the Americans. These tariffs were enacted to protect the American manufacturing businesses from the inexpensive manufactured British goods (Khan Academy, “The Nullification Crisis”). Specifically, the Tariff of 1828, or most commonly known as the Tariff of Abominations, was passed in the years that followed the War of 1812 to protect the American businesses. This tariff defended products in the North from the competition of imports overseas (History, Art, and Archives, “The Tariff of Abominations: The Effects”). However, the tariff did little to support the businesses in the South.As a result of the tariff, it increased the taxes on raw materials in the South (History, Art, and Archives, “The Tariff of Abominations: The Effects”). They were forced to pay excessive prices on goods, and they were not able to trade with other nations as much as the other American areas. Although the North experienced a flourish in their economy because of the tariff, the South’s economy was interrupted since various businesses were losing money and profit. Furthermore, the South felt the tariff’s unfairness and “financial strain” (Aboukhadijeh, “Nullification Crisis”). The South’s economy worsened since Britain decided to lessen their trade with the South, especially cotton, because of the tariff. Thus, the South decided to protest against the Tariff of 1828 with the guidance of John C. Calhoun. In the South, the tariff was called the Tariff of Abominations because the South despised how the tariff protected and increased the duties of the “Northerners and Westerners at the expense of the Southerners” (Alchin, “1828 Tariff of Abominations”). Instead of the tariff benefitting all areas of the country, it only served as an advantage to the North and West, and it left the South on their own. Moreover, this tariff raised the tensions between the North and the South. It generated threats to secede due to its unpopularity (Khan Academy, “The Nullification Crisis”). Therefore, by calling the tariff as the Tariff of Abominations, the South clearly expressed its opposition to the tariff. John Caldwell Calhoun, the Vice-President of the United States during that time, strongly opposed the Tariff of 1828 since he was born in South Carolina. South Carolina protested this tariff strongly than any other state through the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions made by Madison and Jefferson that supported the state’s rights (Aboukhadijeh, “Nullification Crisis”). These resolutions stated that the state had the right to declare unconstitutional laws as ineffective. Moreover, Calhoun wrote The South Carolina Exposition and Protest that included the Theory of Nullification, which was “the declaration of a federal law as null and void within state borders” (Khan Academy, “The Nullification Crisis”). Calhoun believed that states could nullify laws that were unconstitutional, such as the Tariff of 1828. He argued that the U.S. Constitution only passed tariffs to boost the revenue and not protect them from overseas competition (Khan Academy, “The Nullification Crisis”). The tariff did not aid their protection from foreign rivalries, and it only helped those in the North. Thus, Calhoun wanted the Tariff of 1828 to be nullified.Calhoun’s idea had been expressed before in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolution while James Madison wrote the Virginia Resolution, and they both claimed the rights of the states (Bill of Rights Institute, “Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions”). This means that the government could not stop the states from having their own individual rights. Specifically, in the Kentucky Resolution, Jefferson claimed that the states could nullify federal laws that they saw as unconstitutional (Bill of Rights Institute, “Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions”). To oppose the Tariff of 1828, Calhoun expressed this same idea, and he argued to nullify the tariff. This idea was expressed in both the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, and it served as a way for Calhoun to strengthen his argument about nullifying the tariff. In conclusion, the War of 1812 generated many tariffs, but the Tariff of 1828 especially affected the South. In the South, this was seen as the Tariff of Abominations due to its negative effects in their states. Many Southerners, specifically Vice-President Calhoun, protested and wanted to nullify the tariff because they deemed it as unconstitutional. Calhoun’s ideas were expressed before in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions that Madison and Jefferson wrote in the previous years.