BIO science such as AI, neural networks, genetic

BIO INFORMATICS

Bio informatics is
an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools
for understanding biological data. It is an interdisciplinary field
of science, bioinformatics combines computer Science, Biology, Mathematics,
and Engineering to analyse and interpret biological data. The algorithm
and techniques of computer science are used to solve the problems faced in the
molecular biology. Storage and Analysis are the important functions on which
the bioinformatics tools are built on.

WHY BIOINFORMATICS IS
IMPORTANT:

They are important in
the analysis and interpretation of various types of biological data, including
DNA, RNA and protein sequences, protein structures, gene expression profiles
and biochemical pathways. The need for the bioinformatics has risen from the
recent explosion of publicly available genomic information which gives a better
understanding of the gene analysis, taxonomy and evolution and to uncover the
wealth of bioinformatics hidden in the mass of structure, literature and
biological data.

Bioinformatics
use certain disciplines of computer science such as AI, neural networks,
genetic algorithms, dynamic programming, and pattern recognition. Bioinformatics
helps us to work efficiently on the rational drug designs and reduce the time
taken for the development of the drug manually and also to find if one DNA be
used to stop genetic dis orders and diseases which would be lifesaving and cost
effective when properly diagnosed. They can also be used in agriculture to
produce high yield and low maintenance crops.

WORKING OF
BIOINFORMATICS:

Anything a cell could
possibly want is stored in its DNA. Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
When a cell wants to build a protein, it finds
the appropriate piece of DNA, makes a copy of it called RNA, and uses the
instructions in the copy to make the protein. Proteins are the ‘machinery’ of a
cell. They can perform many functions like transportation, structural support,
movement and metabolism. Proteins are made from amino acids and there are
twenty different amino acids that are used to build millions of different
protein molecules. The principle of bioinformatics is that these molecules
can be studied by using computers to
analyse the DNA, RNA, and amino acid sequences from which they are
created. Because there are so many different molecules, the best way we have of
understanding how the entire system works is to use bioinformatics. One
of the most basic operations in bioinformatics involves searching for
similarities, or homologies, between a newly sequenced piece of DNA and
previously sequenced DNA segments from various organisms.

 

SOFTWARES USED IN BIO
INFORMATICS:

Various software are
used in the Bio Informatics like sarchitect designer, .NET bio, intermine,
GENtle, Taverna Workbench, and Strandsysbio etc. They operate on various operating
system. The sarchitect software is a computing platform for chem informaticians
and data scientists which include algorithms like neural networks, baysean
methods and decision trees. The .NET bio is a language neutral tool built using
the Microsoft 4.0 .NET framework to help developers and researchers. GENtle is
a tool which is used to analyse and edit the DNA sequence files which used the
platforms like Linux, macOS, Windows and Taverna workbench is used in the
workflows execution. Strandsysbio is an interactive modelling and simulation
computing platform which is used in the simulation of the diseases evolution
and it is used in creating content specific knowledge bases.

APPLICATIONS OF BIO
INFORMATCS:

The bio informatics is
used in medical and non-medical industries. Bioinformatics uses maths,
Statistics, Information Technology to solve complex biological problems. The
various applications includes comparative genomics, Health and drug discovery,
Prediction of protein structure, Genome Annotation, Crop improvement, Forensic
analysis and biotechnology. The sequence Analysis determine the genes which
encode regulatory sequence and peptides .The tools are used to see the DNA
mutations in an organisms. The comparative genomics is the branch which
determines the gene structure and the function relation between different
species. The evolution process is done through genome mapping. The health and
drug discovery are useful in the disease diagnosis and disease management. The
other application include prediction of protein structure where the
determination of the primary structure of protein is easy and its difficult in
the determination of the secondary, tertiary , quaternary structures of
proteins. The genome determines the regulatory sequences. In the non-medical
applications, Bioinformatics is used in the pollution detection, Climate
change, Mass spectroscopy, discovery of bio pesticides and finding crops
resistant to drought and diseases.

PROS AND CONS OF
BIOINFORMATICS:

PROS:

Bioinformatics applies
data mining, modern computer based statistics in the biomedical data which leverages
on machine based learning approaches where it used artificial intelligence and
the technique of decision tree, clustering algorithm which is ideally suited
for handling large data. Capable of providing insights into biological
processes such as Gene function, Gene development, Cancer, Aging, Pharmacology.
The bioinformatics have a say not only in the medical techniques but also in
the non-medical areas.

CONS:

The major disadvantage
of bioinformatics is that it’s a young field and hence there are very few
proven techniques and methods and the researchers are also very few in number
where there is limited guidance. Generation of complex data using single decision
tree and decision tree ensembles is tedious. The research and development in
India still lacks many basic facilities like the infrastructure and the
technology.