BIO INFORMATICSBio informatics isan interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software toolsfor understanding biological data. It is an interdisciplinary fieldof science, bioinformatics combines computer Science, Biology, Mathematics,and Engineering to analyse and interpret biological data. The algorithmand techniques of computer science are used to solve the problems faced in themolecular biology. Storage and Analysis are the important functions on whichthe bioinformatics tools are built on.WHY BIOINFORMATICS ISIMPORTANT:They are important inthe analysis and interpretation of various types of biological data, includingDNA, RNA and protein sequences, protein structures, gene expression profilesand biochemical pathways.
The need for the bioinformatics has risen from therecent explosion of publicly available genomic information which gives a betterunderstanding of the gene analysis, taxonomy and evolution and to uncover thewealth of bioinformatics hidden in the mass of structure, literature andbiological data.Bioinformaticsuse certain disciplines of computer science such as AI, neural networks,genetic algorithms, dynamic programming, and pattern recognition. Bioinformaticshelps us to work efficiently on the rational drug designs and reduce the timetaken for the development of the drug manually and also to find if one DNA beused to stop genetic dis orders and diseases which would be lifesaving and costeffective when properly diagnosed. They can also be used in agriculture toproduce high yield and low maintenance crops.WORKING OFBIOINFORMATICS:Anything a cell couldpossibly want is stored in its DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.When a cell wants to build a protein, it findsthe appropriate piece of DNA, makes a copy of it called RNA, and uses theinstructions in the copy to make the protein. Proteins are the ‘machinery’ of acell. They can perform many functions like transportation, structural support,movement and metabolism. Proteins are made from amino acids and there aretwenty different amino acids that are used to build millions of differentprotein molecules. The principle of bioinformatics is that these moleculescan be studied by using computers toanalyse the DNA, RNA, and amino acid sequences from which they arecreated. Because there are so many different molecules, the best way we have ofunderstanding how the entire system works is to use bioinformatics.
Oneof the most basic operations in bioinformatics involves searching forsimilarities, or homologies, between a newly sequenced piece of DNA andpreviously sequenced DNA segments from various organisms. SOFTWARES USED IN BIOINFORMATICS:Various software areused in the Bio Informatics like sarchitect designer, .NET bio, intermine,GENtle, Taverna Workbench, and Strandsysbio etc.
They operate on various operatingsystem. The sarchitect software is a computing platform for chem informaticiansand data scientists which include algorithms like neural networks, bayseanmethods and decision trees. The .NET bio is a language neutral tool built usingthe Microsoft 4.0 .
NET framework to help developers and researchers. GENtle isa tool which is used to analyse and edit the DNA sequence files which used theplatforms like Linux, macOS, Windows and Taverna workbench is used in theworkflows execution. Strandsysbio is an interactive modelling and simulationcomputing platform which is used in the simulation of the diseases evolutionand it is used in creating content specific knowledge bases.APPLICATIONS OF BIOINFORMATCS:The bio informatics isused in medical and non-medical industries. Bioinformatics uses maths,Statistics, Information Technology to solve complex biological problems. Thevarious applications includes comparative genomics, Health and drug discovery,Prediction of protein structure, Genome Annotation, Crop improvement, Forensicanalysis and biotechnology.
The sequence Analysis determine the genes whichencode regulatory sequence and peptides .The tools are used to see the DNAmutations in an organisms. The comparative genomics is the branch whichdetermines the gene structure and the function relation between differentspecies. The evolution process is done through genome mapping. The health anddrug discovery are useful in the disease diagnosis and disease management. Theother application include prediction of protein structure where thedetermination of the primary structure of protein is easy and its difficult inthe determination of the secondary, tertiary , quaternary structures ofproteins.
The genome determines the regulatory sequences. In the non-medicalapplications, Bioinformatics is used in the pollution detection, Climatechange, Mass spectroscopy, discovery of bio pesticides and finding cropsresistant to drought and diseases.PROS AND CONS OFBIOINFORMATICS:PROS:Bioinformatics appliesdata mining, modern computer based statistics in the biomedical data which leverageson machine based learning approaches where it used artificial intelligence andthe technique of decision tree, clustering algorithm which is ideally suitedfor handling large data. Capable of providing insights into biologicalprocesses such as Gene function, Gene development, Cancer, Aging, Pharmacology.
The bioinformatics have a say not only in the medical techniques but also inthe non-medical areas.CONS:The major disadvantageof bioinformatics is that it’s a young field and hence there are very fewproven techniques and methods and the researchers are also very few in numberwhere there is limited guidance. Generation of complex data using single decisiontree and decision tree ensembles is tedious. The research and development inIndia still lacks many basic facilities like the infrastructure and thetechnology.