Cardiovascular diseases belong to a category of diseases in which detrimental effects occur on heart and blood vessels. Across the globe , this category of diseases are the most recurrent reason behind human mortality. In India they account for about a quarter percent of demises. A notable disease affecting the myocardium is myocardial ischemia. In ischemia there is deficiency in the amount of oxygen delivered due to the limitation in blood flow.
The reason behind constraint of blood flow in arteries is plaque hoarding or obstruction due clot emergence. The outcome is the injury of the myocardial tissue in the state of Ischemic hypoxia. various alterations are commenced in the cardiac tissue as a consequence of ischemia.These involve morphological changes in terms of size of the cardiac tissue, enzymatic changes that pertain to the level and activity of myocardium associated enzymes.Hemodynamic changes of decline in blood pressure, heart rate and ejection fraction are also an aftermath of ischemia.
The incidence of arrthymias some of which may be fatal is affiliated with ischemia.The net result of these changes is the dysfunction of cardiac tissue contributing to heart complications such as heart attack , heart failure , etcWith the current lifestyle trend , the cases of ischemia and other ischemia related complications are on a rise.Intensive research is being undertaken in hopes of finding cardioprotective agents that have significant reversal effects on ischemia.Recently , the cardioprotective potential of oxytocin has been identified. Oxytocin synthesized in hypothalamus and showing effects of uterine contraction during labor , milk ejection during lactation was also found to be synthesized in heart.This implies its cardiovascular role.
The delivery of oxytocin to body effects the blood pressure, heart rate, etc..Oxytocin is found to augment the levels of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide leading to natriuresis which decreases the blood pressure. It also increases nitric oxide levels causing vasodilation of arteries.
These mechanisms culminate in lowering the work load on heart and also elevate the blood supply to ischemic heart.Electrocardiograph changes were monitored and recorded in patients administered with oxytocin and undergoing Caesarean section .The present study tests the hypothesis that oxytocin exerts cardioprotective effects against ischemia.