CHAPTER and family health, thus results in poor

CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY

Introduction

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This chapter
reintroduces the proposed research questions and provides a description of the
participants, instrumentation and data collection procedures, as well as the
study’s ethical considerations. The aim of this chapter
is to provide a complete analysis on how the systematic literature was
conducted to answer the proposed research question.  In addition, it describes the target groups
of the studies collected, as well the method strategies that have been used to
acquire the research articles.

Research
Questions

As
indicated in Chapter 1, the proposed research question for the purpose of this
study is as follows: Do interventions aimed towards at-risk mothers and infants
reduce infant mortality during their first year of life in the United States?

Description of the Participants

            The participants in this study are
identified individuals with singleton babies, including teens; and women
residing in urban communities who are at high-risk for pregnancy related
complication (e.g., lacking knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, health practices,
age, race/ethnicity, income and education and employment status). Teens and
women who are considered vulnerable populations are at substantially greater
risk of poor physical, mental and social health and have a much higher rate of
morbidity and mortality. In addition to these significant health needs, they
also typically face barriers when it comes to accessing timely and needed care
and, even when receiving care, have worse health outcomes than other women
(CDC, 2017). Finally, the social ecological model has been chosen to analyze
personal, community and societal institutions impact on infant mortality. By
exploring the social ecological model a more comprehensive approach to
acknowledging how individual challenges, environmental resources, and
organizational structures influences the health behaviors of African American
women. Social inequities may contribute to differences in access to or quality
of health care, which leads to less knowledge and skill in promoting personal
and family health, thus results in poor health and birth outcomes.

Instrumentation

            Information regarding infant mortality in this systematic
review was gathered via mail survey, phone interview, and birth certificates. All sources utilized provided
the most up to date data beginning from 2000 to present day. These include
journal articles from databases such as Pub-Med (Medline), CDC, and NCHS, just to name a few. In addition, peer-reviewed journals
and other reputable websites through various libraries and university holdings
were also used. Furthermore, the 2015-2017 CDC Report was utilized  as a resource specific to the statistical
factors that embody the infant morality realm, such as cycles resulting in live
births, number of deaths befor reaching the age one, birth defects, low birth weight, (SIDS),
pregnancy complications, and associated injuries. Data for the report was
gathered from various surveys that were conducted
regarding awareness of available
services, attitudes towards these services, whether or not they have been
sought out, and elaboration on any experiences of these services.

                                                           Ethical
Considerations

        In this review, it was essential to uphold ethical codes in regards to race/ethnicity bias, maternal age, and
perception. This systematic review literature did not require Institutional
Review Board (IRB) approval. To achieve the highest level of credibility when
conducting the review study, secure and reliable databases were utilized to
search for pertinent studies; therefore, only peer-reviewed, scholarly research
articles were chosen for analysis.

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