Chapter 1ORGANIZATION AND INTRODUCTION OF THE THESIS 1.1 INTRODUCTIONAn electronic device that consists of arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) and control circuitry which is required to function as computers CPU is called Microprocessor. It is an integrated circuit that interprets and executes the program instructions and behaves intelligently. It operates at a speed of the internal clock and the speed of the clock depends upon the no. of pulses per second. The processor performs the function that corresponds to the instruction with each clock pulse.No.
of instructions executed per second. During the execution of instructions is use for the calculation of the processer power , Registers is used for data storage but it is temporarily in memory unit. The electronic signals used for communication between various processor units during the execution of the instruction is called control signal.A number of basic modules which together completes the processor is called 16 bit microprocessor. It uses 16 bit data bus to communicate through different sections like General purpose registers, ALU, CU (control unit), memory, comparator, program counter , address register, instruction register and shift register. The power of the processor has increased tremendously is the advancement in integrated circuit technology.
They are widely used in the embedded sector based on general purpose application and special purpose application. In this project we focus on reversible logic gate to design ALU .Using reversible logic gates , a reversible ALU is constructed whose function is the same as normal usable ALU.
Comparing with the number of input bits and the discarded bits of the traditional ALU, the use and loss of information bits the reversible ALU reduces it. The proposed reversible 16-bit ALU reuses the information bits and achieves the lowering delay of logic circuits by 42% approximately. 1.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVEDesign a 16 bit microprocessor by using VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) is the object of this project.
The RISC Instruction and ALU is designed by reversible logic gate is the goal of this microprocessor. VHDL as a hardware description language is used by this design.1.3 SCOPES OF WORK Based on available resources, limited time frame and expertise, this research project is the following scope of work.
This project includes the design of 16 bit microprocessor using VHDL and collecting the simulation result.Analysis of the simulated result of 16 bit microprocessor.1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THESISThis report is organized into five chapters. The first chapter will cover the introduction , project objectives and scopes of work.In chapter 2 brief introduction of microprocessor, about its origin a brief discussion , history of it.
It also discuss different microprocessor chips, and present microprocessors. Last of this chapter there is a brief discussion about VHDL (very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language) . In chapter 3, about the design of 16 bit microprocessor we discussed. Its overview and block diagram of 16 bit microprocessor and each component used by microprocessor.Chapter 4 how we can interface the verified design with a synthesis tool it is discussed.
Here we have given the introduction of our implementation platform, that is XILINX SPARTAN 3A FPGA kit. All the features and operations of the software and hardware tools are discussed here. In chapter 5 it is a discussion of VHDL test benches and how they are to work in functionality. Its end with the discussion by describing the simulation At the end there is a appendix section for VHDL coding of each components of CPU.
Chapter 2 INTRODUCTION OF MICROPROCESSOR AND VHDL 2.1 INTRODUCTIONA multipurpose, programmable, clock-operation,