CHAPTERIIIRESEARCHMETHOD Inthis chapter, the researcher presents the research method. It covers the typeof research, research instruments, data collecting technique, and data analysistechnique.A.
Typeof The ResearchThe type of this research is quasi-experimentalwhich belongs to experimental research. This research applies a quantitativemethod. The purpose of this research is to know thedifference between student’s achievement taught by Song and without Song. The researchuses a quasi-experimental with pre-test and post-test in control group design.This research used non-equivalent control group design where it took twoclasses, the first class is the experimental group and the second class iscontrol group. B. ResearchDesignThere are two main variables of this research, theyare independent and dependent variable. According to Sugiyono (2017: 39) The independent variable is thevariable which is selected, manipulated, and measured by the research.
meanwhile,the dependent variable is the variable which observed and measure to determinethe effect of the independent variable. The description as follows:1. Theindependent variable is using Song (X)2. Thedependent variable is students’ vocabulary mastery (Y)In this design, the experimental class is taughtusing Song and control class is taught without using Song. The design can beseen in the table below: Table 1Non Equivalent Control Group Design X Sugiyono (2017:79) Note: : Before : After treatment by using song : Before : After treatment without using songX :Treatment by using song C. Settingof The ResearchThe research will be conduct in SD MuhammadiyahWirobrajan 3 which located on Jl.
Gatutkaca, Wirobrajan, Kota Yogyakarta, DaerahIstimewa Yogyakarta. SD Muhammadiyah Wirobrajan 3 is an A accredited school andthe students have many achievements. The participants of the research are thethird-grade students of SD Muhammadiyah Wirobrajan 3 in the Academic Year of2017/2018. D. Population,Sample, and Technique Sampling1. PopulationSugiono(2017:80) states that population is a generalization region consisting of:objects / subjects that have certain qualities and characteristics set by theresearchers to be studied and then drawn conclusions.
Thepopulation of this research includes all of the third students of SDMuhammadiyah Wirobrajan 3 in the Academic Year of 2017/2018. The population ofthe research consists of four classes. They are class IIIA, IIIB, IIIC, andIIID which each class consists of around 30-35 students. Table2Tableof the Distribution of the Population No Classes Number of students 1. IIIA 32 2.
IIIB 30 3. IIIC 33 4. IIID 35 2. SampleSugiyono(2017:81) explained that the sample is part of the number and characteristicspossessed by that population.Inthis research, the researcher takes two classes as the sample. Table3TheDistribution of the Sample No Classes Number of Students 1. IIIA (the experimental class) 32 2. IIIB (the control class) 30 3.
Techniqueof SamplingSamplingtechnique is needed to decide a data source as a representation of populationthat will be observed. According to Sugiyono (2017:81), sampling is the way toget sample. E. TheResearch InstrumentIn this research, the researcher uses pre-test andpost-test as the research instruments in order to collect data.
The test isaimed to know the different achievement between the experimental class and thecontrol class after giving treatment. The researcher measured the validity andreliability of the test before the test is given to the students. According toSuharsimi Arikunto (2010: 211), a measure that indicates the level of validity.The reliability of the test needs to find out firstbefore the instrument is used to the subject of the research. The test isprovides information on whether the data collection procedure is consistent andaccurate.
In this research, the researcher measure thevalidity the validity and reliability of the research by using ANATES V.4 F. TheTechnique of Data CollectingIn this research, the researcher uses test in orderto collect data. The function of the test is to know the effectiveness of usingsongs in teaching vocabulary to the third grade students of SD MuhammadiyahWirobrajan 3. The main technique in collecting data is the test which conductby the researcher. The pre-test will be given to both experimental class andcontrol class to find out the achievement in vocabulary mastery before thetreatment is began. Meanwhile, the post-test will be given to both experimentalclass and control class to find out the achievement in vocabulary mastery aftertreatment by using song and without using song.
There three steps thatresearcher used:1. Pre-testA pre-test is giving atest to both groups; the experimental group and the control group. The purposeof this pre-test is to know students achievement between the experimental groupand the control group before treated.2. TreatmentIn this step, theresearcher give the students materials based on the curriculum and thesyllabus. The material which is used to teach both of experimental class andcontrol class is the same.
The researcher teaches vocabulary by using Songtoward the experimental class and teaches vocabulary without Song in thecontrol class. 3. Post-testThe post-test is givinga test to both groups; the experimental group and the control group. Thepost-test is given after the treatment. The purpose of this post-test is toknow the effectiveness Song in teaching vocabulary in the experimental class.Inthis research, the researcher uses T-test to know the differences betweenstudents’ score that are taken from pre-test and post-test both in experimental class and control class.The first thing the researcher before calculating T-test is measure normalityand homogeneity test.
The researcher uses SPSS v.18 to analyze the normality testand homogeneity test.a. NormalityTestNormality testconducted on two classes, there are experimental class and control class.
According to Susetyo (2010: 271), normality test is used to know whether thedata from both sample groups which is examined comes from the population ofnormal distribution or not. The researcher uses SPSS v.18 to do normality testwhich is Analyze-Descriptive Statistic-Explore-Plots-Normality Plots with Test.b. HomogeneityTestHomogeneity testconducted after normality test has already done and the data indicates normal.Normality test used to know the similarity both of population. The similarityof the population can be seen if the significant value p > 0.05 in Susetyo(2010: 298).
The researcher uses SPSS v.18 to o homogeneity test which isAnalyze-Compare Means-One way ANOVA-Option-Homogeneity of Variance. G. HypothesisTestTheresearcher uses T-test to find out whether there is significant differencebetween experimental class and control class in this researcher. The researcheruses which is adapted by Anas Sudijono to find out the result. According toSudijono (2004: 314-316), there are several steps before applying the t-testformula.
The formula of t-test which is used in this research is: = Note: : The value of ‘t’ countM : Mean variable of experimental classM2 : Mean variable of control classSEM1 : Standard Error of experimental classSEM2 : Standard Error of control class Theprocedures of calculation are as follows:1. DeterminingMean of Variable X 2. DeterminingMean of Variable Y 3. DeterminingDeviation Standard of Score of Variavble X= 4. DeterminingDeviation Standard of Score of Variavble Y= 5. DeterminingStandard Error of Mean of Variable X 6.
DeterminingStandard Error of Mean of Variable Y7. DeterminingStandard Error of different of Mean of Variable X and Variable Y 8. Determiningwith formula: 9. DeterminingDegrees of Freedom (df) in significancelevel 1%df= () – 2 Note: : The total number of experimental class : The total number of control class : Standard deviation of experiment class : Standard deviation of control class H. StatisticalHypothesisAfterthe T-test conducted, the researcher compares T-test and T-table. Testinghypothesis uses criteria with significant degree 0.
01. It can be seen:is accepted if () < () in significant degree0.01is accepted if () > () in significant degree0.01 : There is a significant difference between students’achievement in vocabulary mastery which is taught by using song and without song : There is no significant difference between students’achievement in vocabulary mastery which is taught by using song and withoutsong