How Effective is the Child Protection System in the United Kingdom with Specific Reference to Blacken African Children in Tackling Child Abuse?
Literature highlights some of the challenges for societal workers measuring and doing determinations about African kids and households whose civilizations differ from the bulk of the white population in United Kingdom. The critical rating of cognition and research in kid protection and bar of kid maltreatment in black African kids is of import to the forming of societal work policy, services and appropriate intercession. This is because there is need to supply appropriate intercession services which are culturally sensitive but at the same clip forestalling child maltreatment. It is of import that black African kids perspectives form portion of policies and statute law. Several writers have critically analysed the grounds on service proviso for black households in general. A pathologising attack to black households may take to unneeded coercive intercession and on the other manus a cultural relativist attack may take to a non-intervention when services are required ( Dominelli 1997, Chand 2000 ) .
The intent of the reappraisal is to research if the kid protection system is effectual in forestalling kid maltreatment in black African kids and their households. By kid protection, the reappraisal will be mentioning to all the bureaus and services involved in protecting and forestalling kid maltreatment. By associating to theory and research, there is hope to bring out spreads, subjects and arguments and besides, raise inquiries which can be utile for future research. The literature reappraisal starts by puting the parametric quantities that is, specifying the footings that will be used, such as, kid protection and kid maltreatment. The literature reappraisal goes to put the historical and theoretical context because it is of import to cognize how long literature and research has existed on the subject and what has been go oning including research on civilization differences, poorness, power issues and kid protection. The reappraisal goes on to turn to the theoretical positions on the subject to analyze the theories that form the cognition base in research. The reappraisal goes on to look at the major findings in research and literature by researching the cardinal subjects such as factors that impact African kids that can ensue them in being involved in the kid protection system for illustration, kid raising patterns, poorness and limited cognition in cultural patterns by societal work professionals. Finally the reappraisal will look at the anti-discriminatory pattern and user-involvement to demo how professionals can work sensitively and supply civilization appropriate services.
The literature hunt
Child protection system aims to forestall state of affairss that can ensue in a kid or immature individual aged 16 and under experience maltreatment that puts them in danger of non developing suitably or losing their life ( Salvage the Children UK, 2008 ) . The maltreatment can fall under the class of kid maltreatment which could be in signifier of disregard, emotional, physicals and sexual, ( Woolfson et al 2009 ) . The hunt involved these footings. After set uping the specific country to be reviewed ; the focal point was on black African kids and the kid protection system. The country of kid protection and black African kids is a controversial country that has been neglected in literature and research and there is demand to analyze subjects and place spreads in literature. The beginnings selected were diaries, books, authorities records and articles. Electronic hunt engines were used because they provided a readily available broad scope of literature and research articles which have been accepted for publication. These beginnings were used as grounds and beginning of information because they had been accepted for printing hence they would non supply with false information.
Reappraisal of the literature
In puting the historical context, the most of import development in kid protection is the preparation of the Children Act 1989 which was influenced by the public enquiries of the 1970s and 1980s child deceases, for illustration, the Maria Cowell. The Act stressed that the Local Authority ‘s responsibility is to safeguard and advance the public assistance of kids. However, research into how the Children Act was being put into action found that the kid protection system was still concentrating on individual incidents of kid abuse instead than be aftering to run into the wider demands of kids in demand ( DoH, 1995a ) . The surveies besides noted that many kids and households received small or no support, the appraisal of hazard was low ( Stevenson, 1998 ) and ignored the influences of poorness, unemployment and hapless lodging. This meant that a new manner in thought was needed about working with households. The consequence was publication of the Framework for Assessment of Children in Need and their Families ( DoH et al, 2000 ) and Working Together to Safeguard Children ( DoH et al, 1999 ) .
A Common Assessment model was besides developed to advance more effectual earlier designation of kids ‘s extra demands and better inter-agency working. A reappraisal into old deceases of kids indicates failures to listen to kids, sharing of information, follow processs and recognizing indexs of maltreatment. The chief response to the deceases of kids due to local governments ‘ failures has been to seek bureaucratic solutions such as presenting new guidelines, Torahs and processs ( Ferguson, 2005 ) . However, the Laming 2003 question into the tragic decease of Victoria Climbie in 2000 is peculiarly important because it pointed out the inter-agency attack established after Maria Cowell ‘s decease in 1973 was non followed and it considered deductions for the whole of the kid protection system ( Batty, 2003 ) . Crippling ( 2003 ) highlights the misjudgements made on the Climbie ‘s instance based on cultural premises that led to a calamity. However, Garret ( 2006 ) argues that the Laming study ( 2003 ) appears to detach a kid ‘s race from nucleus appraisals and this was echoed in the Every Child Matters which appears to advert really small about the demands of kids from other races. After the Victoria Climbie question at that place has been recent decease of kids known to societal services such as, babe P ( 2007 ) and Khyra Ishaq ( 2008 ) . This begs the inquiry, where is the kid protection system traveling incorrect? There are arguments on how to supply societal work intercessions and household support that are culturally sensitive and competent to African kids and their households who are at hazard of important injury ( Stobart, 2006 ; Holland 2004, Robinson 2007 ; Mama 2004 ) . This was highlighted in the Laming Progress Report ( 2009 ) which set out challenges faced in safeguarding kids such as: “ … there is still need to better cognition and accomplishments to understand kids and their household fortunes. Besides the crippling study noted that despite the advancement in inter-agency working there are still jobs of twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours world of working across organizational boundaries and civilization… ” , Laming Progress Report ( 2009 ) . When reexamining literature it is of import to observe that there is a sparse of research on black African kids and the kid protection system in the Britain hence it is hard to put out the historical and theoretical context. Where research and literature exists, the information is still non plausible because it is assorted with other research informations from minority cultural populations and their experience differs widely.
Theoretical and research positions that form cognition
Different theories and positions inform cognition base in literatures environing African kids and the kid protection system. When researching this country there is need to look at experiences of African people and their engagement with child protection hence research workers can utilize the black position which is based on the impression of common experiences that black people portion. The black position criticises repressive research and theories that are likely to suppress black people, ( Robinson 2007 ) . African households will ever mention to their civilization as frame of mention to their parenting capacities ( Bernard and Gupta, 2008 ) and understanding and recognition of the black frame of mention will enable societal workers to come up with accurate and comprehensive appraisals of African black kids involved with the kid protection system, ( Robinson 2007 ) . Other literature is based on the ecological position and foreground the importance to analyze the impacts of societal exclusion, poorness and in-migration on black African kids and their households, ( Gibbs and Huang 2003 ) . However, Robinson 1998 argues that there is a danger of over-generalising and stereotyping because single members from the same civilization can act otherwise from the form that is typical of that civilization. However, other research workers argue that postmodern theories have gained popularity in societal work, ( Pease and Fook 1999 ; Leonard 1997 ) . Research workers have argued against postmodern theories who want a better apprehension of individuality, uniting personal with structural elements of life ( Dominelli 2002 ; Graham 2002 ) , pulling on the thought of what holds people together, ( Badiou 2001 ) . The deficiency of appropriate preventive support services which are civilization sensitive frequently result in societal work runing against the involvements of black kids involved in kid protection, ( Barn 1993, Graham 2002 ) . Social work has operated within a job oriented model which is characterised by shortage and dysfunctional theories of black households ( Robinson 2008 ) .
Major happening in literature and research
Research agrees that black African kids and their households are disproportionately represented in kid protection ( Graham, 2006 ; Barn et Al 1997 ; Bernard and Gupta 2008 ) . When looking at experiences of black African kids and their households and how best to offer them appropriate intercession it is of import to admit background in footings of faith, civilization, linguistic communication and beliefs ( Bernard and Gupta 2008 ; Gibbs and Huang 2003 ; Robinson 2007 ) . Research shows that black African households may see subjugation and favoritism within the kid protection system ( Chand, 2008 ) . A batch of literature appears to pull attending to the parenting in African households and how their civilization is neglected in a batch researches and there is small empirical grounds particularly about African parenting in Britain ( Bernard, 2002 ; Graham 2006 ) . Rearing by African households is entwined into an already argument of what constitutes child maltreatment ( Francis, 1993 ; Chand 2000 ) . Barn, 2002 argues that kid maltreatment is a socially constructed phenomenon and most of literature environing kid maltreatment is based on western society ‘s positions and middle-class. This can take to favoritism and stereotypes towards African households ‘ raising patterns and lead to unwanted intercession and societal attention engagement. There is good documented literature focused on how civilization influence parenting of African households involved with kid protection system, ( Brophy et al 2003, Bernard, 2002 ; Graham 2006 ) . However, the empirical research is limited but the small informations that exists poses the impression that cultural patterns appear to play some portion in African kids being involved in the kid protection system, ( Mama, 2004 ) . Literature suggests that African households pattern rough penalty for kids, nevertheless, Barn et al 2006 ; Thoburn et Al 2005 ; Nobes and Smith 1997, challenge such stereotypes and in their survey, they found no important differences between cultural groups with respect to physical penalty. However, these surveies can non be generalised to African households easy because the bulk of the participants where white parents.
There is spread in research on the parenting by black African households and a perennial subject in literature is the demand to admit cultural and societal contexts of rearing and experience of African black households to do sense of kid maltreatment and supply appropriate intercession for kids and households involved in the kid protection system, ( Holland 2004, Robinson 2007, Stobart 2006 ) . A focal point on ethnicity or individuality, preclude issues of power and subjugation operating in the mundane experiences of kids ‘s lives to be appreciated, ( Graham, 2007 ) . Research found that most black African households live in poorness and societal exclusion and how this impacts on parenting, ( Bernard and Gupta 2008 ; Gibbs and Huang 2003 ; Robinson 2007 ; Platt, 2007 ) . A survey of more than 7,000 kids looked after by 13 Local Authorities found that kids who were non of the white beginning where more likely to be put into attention due to poverty ( Sinclair et al, 2007 ) . Sinclair et Al ‘s survey is really of import because it is a comprehensive qualitative survey which focuses on the demands of kids in attention systems affecting their positions and investigates the results for kids. The survey besides suggests how the attention system should work and pull off which is of import to societal work professionals and policy shapers. However, informations produced can non be easy generalised to the full population of African kids because their experiences varies.
There has been research critically analyzing the intervention of refuge seeking kids and the kid protection system and there is statement between the Children Act 1989 and immigration statute law and policy and Jones ( 2001 ) argues that ‘social work profession singularly failed to supply critical examination on the position and relationship of in-migration and kid attention jurisprudence and the eroding of kids ‘s rights ‘ . Other research workers agree with Jones, that exposure of refuge seeking kids has emotional and legal facets, ( Woodcock, 2003 ; Chase, 2009 ) . Kohli 2006, argues that statute law obstruct the proviso of preventive services to vulnerable kids and their households. Research has highlighted the breakability of African kids who claim refuge such as holding enduring injuries due to their fortunes that led them to claim refuge such as war and anguish, ( Hodes, 2000, 2002 ; Ehntholt and Yule, 2006 ; Dyregrov and Yule, 2006 ) . Research shows that there is a spread in research on refuge seeking kids and societal work to inform pattern, ( Kohli and Mather 2003 ; Okitikpi andAymer 2003 ) . Rustin 2005, states that there is a complicated interaction between societal workers ‘ cognition in refuge seeking kids and the bing stereotypes sing these groups of service-users, ( Bernard and Gupta 2008 ; Robinson 2007 ; Barn 1993 ; Owen and Statham 2009 ) .
Bernard and Gupta ( 2008 ) travel on to mention other factors that affect African kids such as refuge seeking, AIDS, loss and separation and this is of import because when supplying intercession to African kids there is demand to grok their background to offer appropriate services which do non know apart them any farther. Young ( 1990 ) states that black kids frequently experience multiple-oppression for illustration, they suffer from stereotypes from society and besides they are unseeable to the kid protection system. Graham ( 1999 ) goes on to reason that intercession with African households is at the Centre of wider arguments and struggle ; and grounds from research continues to demo over-representation of African kids and their households in kid protection. The arguments seem to concentrate on power instabilities and how to affect African households to derive control over their lives, ( Graham, 1999 ; Young, 1990 ) . Other research workers highlight the issues of linguistic communication in kid protection and the proviso of appropriate intercession services, ( Chand 2000, Ahmed et Al, 1982 ) . The usage of kids as transcribers in sensitive kid protection issues is unethical and inappropriate, and besides the usage of an translator can falsify the appraisal procedure, ( Chand, 2000 ) . Bernard and Gupta ( 2008 ) travel further to look at other factors that affect black African kids that other literature seems to pretermit such as how gender norms place adult females in an inferior place within African civilizations and this can restrict female parents to protect their kids in the environment of domestic force, nevertheless Owen and Statham ( 2009 ) argues that the is limited grounds to keep or dispute this impression. Nevertheless, in Masson et Al ( 2008 ) survey, domestic force was evidenced as a cause of concern in the tribunal files of half the kids of Black African female parents implicated in their survey of attention proceedings.
Research and grounds from Climbie question propose that societal work professionals involved with black and minority cultural households might non move in child maltreatment instances because of fright of being regarded as a racialist ( Scorer, 2005 ; Bernard and Gupta, 2006 ) . Nevertheless, literature and research fail to supply a big sum of grounds to back up this impression for illustration, Gordon and Gibbons ( 1998 ) in their survey found no differences between ethnicity in footings of kids being placed on the kid protection registry and factors such as parents ‘ mental wellness jobs, condemnable activities or the kid non suiting in a reconstituted household were the grounds for engagement than ethnicity ( Williams and Soydan, 2005 ) . However, Selwyn et al 2008 found that societal work professionals were more unsure and on occasion puzzled sing how best to advance the demands of cultural kids and they felt further self-doubting in their appraisal. Recuring subjects in literature is the significance of societal work professionals to construct up on culturally sensitive work with black and cultural households ( Gray et al. , 2008 ; Sue, 2006 ; Laird, 2008 ; Stirling et al. , 2009 ; Hodge, 2001 ) .
Anti-discriminatory positions and the incorporation of cognition from service users
Thompson, ( 2008 ) states that anti-discriminatory pattern has been used in Britain to account for good pattern in societal work to counter structural disadvantages nevertheless, Graham 1999, argues that anti-discriminatory pattern fails to supply a cognition base for societal work that is ‘engaged in the corporate development of the black community ‘ . Professionals can indirectly suppress African kids and their households through pattern for illustration, by enforcing their personal values or power, ( Dominelli 2007 ) . Research and literature negotiations about the kid protection supplying cultural sensitive services and developing societal work professionals have the cognition and accomplishments in working with different civilizations. However this can really make farther subjugation and societal divisions. The bulk of the workers will hold dominant Eurocentric positions which encourage farther societal divisions for illustration, demuring the position that African households live in poorness and non fight and dispute this position by supplying services that help households to counter these structural inequalities in society. Dominelli ( 2007 ) argues that there is need to turn to the systems that reaffirm racist kineticss instead than disputing them. Dominelli ( 1992 ) argues that black kids and households are over-represented in the controlling facets of societal work and under-represented in the public assistance facets of societal work.
Problems with communicating and working in partnership have been highlighted in literature. Chase ‘s ( 2009 ) survey found that immature people described complex relationships with societal workers and other societal attention professionals and were besides more leery of the interplay between societal attention and in-migration services. There is limited research that incorporates service user engagement ( Buchanan 2007 ; Bernard 2002 ) taking in their lived experiences nevertheless, an of import survey by Chase 2009 found that immature people frequently described complex relationships with societal workers and other societal attention professionals and were besides more leery of the interplay between societal attention and in-migration services. Recent policy has tried to implement protagonism as a manner of advancing societal justness and incorporate disadvantaged groups ‘ positions on the services that are appropriate for them. In Bowes and Sims ( 2006 ) empirical survey, they found that black and minority cultural communities gave support to protagonism services, nevertheless, they were still marginalised by the services they were already utilizing. There appears to be a demand of qualitative research and literature that includes an extended survey of black African kids ‘s positions and experiences, ( Graham 2007 ) which forms a value base to inform pattern in societal work.
Relevance to policy and pattern
Using the ecological attack the Framework For Assessment of Children in Need and their Families ( DoH, 2000 ) , places a demand on societal work professionals to take history of cultural background and socio-economic places of households paying attending to power instabilities in relationships, ( Dalrymple and Burke, 1995 ) . Dalrymple and Burke ( 1995 ) argue that an apprehension is needed of the association between personal experience and structural pragmatism of inequality. Therefore service users positions should organize portion of policies and statute law respecting and literature high spots that kids ‘s rights may still miss from policy and statute law, hence, these impressions challenge professionals to take kids ‘s positions earnestly and appreciate their part to research, ( Aubrey and Dahl 2006 ) . Lots of research appears to concentrate on authorization through cultural cognition ask foring new believing about the challenges faced by black communities, ( Aubrey and Dahl 2006 ) . The complex societal fortunes experienced by many African households pose challenges for societal work professionals working to safeguard and advance kids ‘s public assistance.
In order to safeguard and advance public assistance of African kids recognition of beginnings of favoritism and subjugation, a committedness to human rights and societal justness must be met.
Several writers have critically analysed the grounds on service proviso for black households in general. A pathologising attack to black households may take to unneeded coercive intercession and on the other manus a cultural relativist attack may take to a non-intervention when services are required ( Dominelli 1997, Chand 2000 ) . Either manner appropriate intercession is non provided for black and cultural minority kids. The quality of services in black communities is a focal point for argument and raises of import issues about the deficiency of policy enterprises based upon demands and aspirations of local communities ( Graham, 2002 ) . By pulling on strengths perspective professionals can light how parents draw on civilizations as a resource to parents in circumstance of hardship whilst non pardoning behavior that is harmful to kids.
There is spreads in research on kid protection and black African households and a perennial subject in literature is the demand to admit cultural and societal contexts of rearing and experience of African black households to do sense of kid maltreatment and supply appropriate intercession for kids and households involved in the kid protection system, ( Holland 2004, Robinson 2007, Stobart 2006 ) . Research shows that there is a spread in research on refuge seeking kids and societal work to inform pattern, ( Kohli and Mather 2003 ; Okitikpi andAymer 2003 ) . There is demand for research centred on black African kids and there is besides need to affect them in forming of policies, disputing the impression that merely ethnicity causes the experiences faced by African kids. This is because by holding cultural sensitive intercession, there can be support of stereotyped services and favoritism disregarding other things such as gender, age and category.