Chloe squirrels and birds make alarm calls when

Chloe Laboy

Professor LaBouff

PSY 100

12 January 2018

Lesson 12 Reading


1.  Normative influence is
when someone’s behavior is influenced by another’s behavior because the latter
gives information on what is appropriate. Normative influence is seen in people
because of a basic rule which if the norm of reciprocity. This is a rule that
is unwritten that people should benefit those who have beneficial to them.
Socially, those who don’t follow this are looked down upon. Second, conformity
is having a tendency to do the same thing others do because those people are
doing it. This happens because people feel the need that they need approval in
the social world. This kind of behavior tells us what is expected, accepted,
proper, and appropriate and therefore their behavior is controlled by which
people are expected to follow those norms. Lastly, obedience is having the
tendency to do what authorities tell you to do because they are the ones
telling us to do whatever is stated. This happens because people having a
feeling of being under pressure normatively. Basically, they are feeling as if
they don’t have a choice but to obey what the authorities say so that they
avoid any punishment upon themselves. There may be a possibility they may feel
that the authorities have certain information the people themselves don’t have
and since that is the case, they need to obey the authorities.

2. A behavior that is
beneficial for another without it being beneficial for oneself is altruism. For
example, squirrels and birds make alarm calls when seeing a predator and yet
this leads to an increased risk of being killed. However, this does allow other
squirrels and birds to escape safely. Surprisingly, this isn’t altruism because
the making of the alarm call is displaying a genetic advantage to the bird.
This means that its genes that are in its relatives have a higher chance of
survival. The alarm call is an example of kin selection. Kin selection is a
process by which genes are selected by evolution and causes individuals to
offer benefits to their relatives. Most of what is claimed to be altruism
within the animal kingdom is actually kin selection. Altruism isn’t involved
with helping someone else if there is an expectation of that person returned
the favor in the future. Moreover, reciprocal altruism is when a behavior
benefits another with having the expectation that those benefits will be
returned to you in the future. For example, a student helps their professor
change their flat tire and this results in you believing that the professor
will return the favor by grading your research paper fairly. Altruistic
behavior is seen in humans. For example, when there is a terrorist attack or
natural disaster, people do risk their lives to save others without having any
expectation of compensation. Another example is when there are anonymous
donations for different charities and hand out large tips at restaurants
knowing that a favor will not be returned to them for the good deed they have

3. Prejudice is when there is a
negative or positive evaluation of someone else based on their membership of
the group. For example, someone is evaluating fan wearing their school’s colors
more approvingly than fans wearing colors of another school. Second,
discrimination is when there is a positive or negative behavior towards someone
else based on their group membership. For example, food requests made by fans
from the visiting team are ignored by the concession stand workers. Third,
deindividuation happens when there is an immersion within a group that causes
people to be less concerned about themselves. For example, every Sunday this girl
goes to church and on the other hand, she is at a football game screaming and
cussing at the referee with all the other screaming fans. Lastly, diffusion of
responsibility is when someone feels weakened responsibility for their actions because
they are around other people who were acting the same. In this case, the girl
that goes to church and is quiet won’t feel forced enough to say a prayer for
forgiveness because she was cussing at the football game and this is because
she has no feeling of responsibility for her actions. However, is she was using
profanity in another setting, she would be extremely upset. This is similar to
if the crowd comes storming onto the field when the game is over and cause
millions of dollars of damage to the field and this, in turn, leads to nobody
feeling personally responsible for this action. 


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