Early on maternity has been an issue in the U.K. for a piece now and informations from the Social Exclusion Unit ( 1999a ) explained by Chase et Al. ( 2009 ) shows that the UK has one of the highest Numberss of immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms in Europe.
A group of pupils including myself carried out a research to happen out whether the demands of immature female parents in one of the boroughs in London are being met and whether their demands fit into the different attacks environing the construct of demand.
In this essay I will be depicting the principle and the nature of the research carried out by our group. I will measure the strengths and restrictions of our research including methodological and ethical issues.
I will be discoursing different attacks in literature to specifying the construct of demand and so associating our findings to the construct. Finally I will see the deductions of our research for societal work policy or pattern so I will reason.
The principle behind the determination to research this inquiry was that the issue of immature parentage is relevant to the field of societal work. This is because the immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms sometimes encounter troubles which make them fall back on the societal services for support. Harmonizing to Chase et Al ( 2009 ) the immature female parents seem to hold the impression that alternatively of having the necessary support that they require, the Social Services instead intrude upon, regulate and size up their lives.
We hence wanted to happen out what the professionals in the field and the immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms identified as their demands, what sort of support was available to them and if there were any spreads in the services provided for immature female parents. We besides wanted to cognize what enables or prevents them from acquiring the sort of support they need.
Furthermore undertaking teenage gestation has besides been on the authorities ‘s docket for a long clip and we wanted to cognize whether the schemes put in topographic point to undertake it were working.
We wanted to broaden our consciousness and cognition base because most of us had limited personal and professional cognition in this country.
We wanted to research issues environing societal exclusion, favoritism and subjugation issues and see if we could come up with any recommendations for pattern.
We chose the southeasterly country because it made it easy to for us to entree resources like the service supplier, service user group and old research stuff.
Our group brainstormed and came up with immature female parents as a subject. We developed this into a inquiry as to whether their demands were being met so we worked out a program with assorted deadlines to carry through different undertakings.
We asked for ethical blessing from the Goldsmiths moralss commission, in which with mention to the ESRC Research Ethics Framework and the NASW codification of moralss we stated our independency and nonpartisanship.
We addressed non malignity by guaranting them of their safety and inquiring them to convey person along with them if they felt they needed support. We besides addressed how we were traveling to undertake issues sing voluntary engagement, informed consent and the unity and quality of the research. We besides addressed ethical informations direction and confidentiality of research participants. We besides wrote out a consent signifier which addressed our aims and effects of engagement.
We chose a qualitative attack explained by Whittaker ( 2009 ) as a method which seeks to research ways in which persons understand their universes. This was because we needed a deeper apprehension of the issues impacting the immature female parents and the grounds behind why and how they felt disadvantaged.
We besides used a quantitative attack when comparing old statistics on immature female parents. This is what Whittaker ( 2009 ) explains as a method which tends to underscore quantification and measuring to set up relationship between variables.
Our research was a Participatory action research which Alston and Bowles ( 1998 ) explain in Whittaker ( 2009 ) as a signifier of research that is committed to the engagement of those affected most. We besides undertook a literature reappraisal where we looked at diaries, books, functionary and legal publications which were relevant to immature female parents.
To enroll the professionals, we used purposeful trying which Whittaker ( 2009 ) explains as a method where one chooses participants who are likely to give utile information based on their cognition, experience or function.
To choose our immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms we used sweet sand verbena trying which Whittaker ( 2009 ) explains as a state of affairs where a little figure of participants ( which in our instance were the professionals ) are asked to urge other suited people who would be willing to take part.
We used semi structured interviews where we had an interview agenda with flexibleness during the interview. The chief constituents of the interview with the professionals were occupation functions, services offered to immature female parents, positions about support due to alter in authorities, demands of immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms, hinderances and spreads in service.
The chief constituents of the interview with the immature female parents were entree to services, instruction and employment, community and service user engagement.
In analyzing our information we used thematic analysis which Whittaker ( 2009 ) explains as a method for placing, analyzing and describing forms ( subjects ) within a set of informations.
In all we interviewed 14 adult females who became immature female parents at ages runing from 14 to 21 old ages and 4 professionals.
The strength of our Participatory action research method as Whittaker ( 2009 ) explains, shows that the method challenged the traditional power instability which would hold made us look like experts and the immature female parents inactive topics. This method was helpful because it was extremely compatible with anti-discriminatory and anti-oppressive pattern.
Due to the limited clip that we had, this method was the most suited manner of deriving a batch of information in a short period of clip as compared to experimental methods.
The qualitative attack besides allowed us to convey our backgrounds and our individualities into our research. This is explained by Maxwell ( 1996 ) in Whittaker ( 2009 ) through the construct of reflexiveness, which acknowledges that we bring our ideas, values and beliefs to our research. This was helpful because being a female parent myself I could place with what some of the immature female parents were stating.
The interviews were helpful because as Whitaker ( 2009 ) explains, interviews are good at analyzing complex issues and enable participants to discourse sensitive issues in the unfastened without perpetrating themselves in composing. This brought out complex and rich informations which drew upon the feelings of the teenage Dendranthema grandifloruoms.
We recorded the interviews and this helped us to give the immature female parents our full attending instead than spliting it between composing and listening.
We had some restrictions in the signifier of the transcripts of the interviews which were clip consuming and the informations really complex to analyze. Due to the figure of immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms we interviewed the findings could non be generalised.
The presence of some of the professionals during our interview was a restriction because the immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms could non truly show their honest sentiments.
Our sample was chosen for us therefore we could merely talk to participants thought to be suited by the service supplier. Opinions from the focal point group could besides be limited to those with the strongest sentiments or the loudest voices. Our research besides lacked the sentiments of immature female parents who did non utilize the service suppliers we used.
To suit the replies we got from our findings in to the construct of demand is complex because one can non come up with cosmopolitan definitions that would suit different impressions on demand.
A figure of cardinal theoreticians have come up with different attacks on the construct of demand. Abraham Maslow pointed out in Hartley ( 2010 ) a hierarchy of demands with the ultimate end being the demand for self realization. Harmonizing to Maslow the first phase was to fulfill what he called physiological demands which included nutrient, shelter, vesture and slumber.
The following phase was to fulfill safety demands which included security, stableness, dependence, protection, freedom from fright, choler and pandemonium.
Maslow identified the following phase which is to fulfill belonging demands. These include giving and having fondness and love, contact, familiarity and belongingness. After this phase comes esteem demands which include a stable and high rating of ego which can be achieved through strength, accomplishment, command, competency, assurance, independency and freedom. Under esteem demands Maslow still put prestigiousness ( esteem from others ) , position, celebrity, attending, acknowledgment, importance and grasp.
The concluding phase on his hierarchy is what Maslow called the ego realization phase where. Maslow emphasises the indispensable goodness, integrity and potencies of worlds.
Sheppard ( 2006 ) criticises Maslow by indicating out that his theories do non see that people can consciously take determinations without following the hierarchy.
Midgely ( 1984 ) in Sheppard ( 2006 ) besides criticises Maslow ‘s theory by stating that the theory barely covers state of affairss where pick is ineluctable. The chase of one end leads to the forsaking of another. For case a individual Dendranthema grandifloruom would love to foster her babe but has to work and pay measures alternatively. She fulfils esteem demands which include independency and freedom but forgoes the old phase of fulfilling belonging demands which include giving and having fondness.
Another attack from Doyal and Gough ( 1991 ) besides explain that all human existences have demands which are nonsubjective and cosmopolitan. These demands can be said to be ends which worlds need to accomplish to avoid serious injury. Serious injury is being basically handicapped in the chase of one ‘s vision of the good.
Doyal and Gough ( 1991 ) grouped these demands into basic demands and intermediate demands where basic demands are a necessity for successful societal engagement in a society in which a individual lives.
Under basic demands they emphasised physical wellness and liberty because physical wellness is cardinal to the capacity for people to direct their lives and carry out determinations.
Doyal and Gough ( 1991 ) explain that liberty is necessary in order for people to be self directing because one facet of liberty is freedom from hinderance or restraints. Therefore one is unable to move under 1s ain way if there are restraints. Hence liberty is non possible when mental wellness, cognitive accomplishments and chances to prosecute in societal engagement are losing.
Having explained basic demands, Doyal and Gough ( 1991 ) went on to explicate that intermediate demands defined how the basic demands can be fulfilled. These included equal nutritionary nutrient and H2O, adequate protective lodging, a safe environment for working, a safe physical environment and appropriate wellness attention. Further included were the demand for security in childhood, important primary relationship with others, physical and economic security, safe birth control and kid bearing, appropriate BASIC and cross cultural instruction. Therefore to be able to fulfill basic needs one needs a scope of satisfiers ( intermediate demands ) which will be culturally specific.
Robinson and Elkan ( 1996 ) explain that the theory underpins theories which emphasise the importance of citizenship and ability to take part within the community.
In the restrictions, Doyal and Gough point out in Robinson and Elkan ( 1996 ) that the theory does non account for what criterion of need satisfaction should be set in order to be able to cipher deficits in the existent degree of demand achieved.
Harmonizing to them a solution to this, is to put a basic minimal criterions such as a poorness line of demand, below which people are prevented from take parting within the society.
Another restriction which Robinson and Elkan ( 1996 ) point out is the job of who to make up one’s mind whether or non a given policy is run intoing basic or intermediate demand.
Another attack from Bradshaw in Hardy ( 1981 ) identified four separate definitions. There is normative demand which is explained by Hartley ( 2010 ) as demands which are determined by adept opinion of policy shapers or professionals. The restriction to this attack, as explained by Hothersall and Maas-Lowit ( 2010 ) is that there may be different conflicting criterions which could belie how demand is identified.
Bradshaw besides identified felt need which Hartley ( 2010 ) explained as demand which is subjectively experienced by an person or inter subjectively experienced by a group ; it is what people feel they want.
Hothersall and Maas-Lowit ( 2010 ) point out that there is a danger that peoples ‘ replies are influenced by what they already know about a service.
Bradshaw went on farther to place expressed demand which Hartley ( 2010 ) explained as felt need turned into action for case demanding a service. Hothersall and Maas-Lowit ( 2010 ) explains that the theory does non take into history the fact that people may be nescient or unwilling to inquire for a service.
Bradshaw identified comparative demand in which people compare what they have to what other people have which is measured by analyzing the features of those having the service or service rating.
Hothersall and Maas-Lowit ( 2010 ) point out that the theory fails to take history of the assortment of ways in which demands might be different, since it makes no effort to compare different countries.
From the positions of the immature female parents we interviewed, they identified lodging as a demand because some of them had been granted impermanent adjustment because they were unemployed. Relatively it was better for them to remain unemployed since rewards from unskilled labor was non plenty to cover their rent so they are stuck.
Maslow identified lodging as a demand which needed to be satisfied before other demands can follow. Housing and economic security are besides explained by Doyal and Gough ( 1991 ) as intermediate demands which have to be fulfilled for basic demands to be met. This is besides impeding them from achieving their ends. Doyal and Gough may name this serious injury.
Traveling by Bradshaw ‘s construct, the normative judgement of the professionals we interviewed explained that lodging was a demand but they could merely account for lodging demands which have been expressed. Many of these immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms lack life accomplishments to be able to show this demand to the appropriate bureau.
Lack of appropriate child care was another expressed demand harmonizing to the immature female parents because most of the kid minders were non willing to do the hours more flexible. This was forestalling them from traveling back to college or seeking employment.
This harmonizing to Doyal and Gough produces serious injury because they are basically disabled in the chase of their ends.
There was one service user ‘s position I found fascinating. She got employment which fits into the esteem demands on Maslow ‘s hierarchy ( independency from public assistance and freedom from poorness ) . Harmonizing to the normative judgement of the professionals because she is working now, she has no demand for benefits. She has rent arrears for six hebdomads, her rewards are manner below minimal pay and kid attention hours are non flexible forestalling her from working more to make full the spread. She wants to discontinue because from her position she used to gain more on benefits therefore she is better off unemployed. Then once more economic security is an intermediate demand which Doyal and Gough explain as necessary to be able to fulfill basic demands. Further more she is basically disabled in accomplishing her end. This harmonizing to Doyal and Gough would bring forth serious injury.
I do non believe that all the recent policies and programmes provide simple and straightforward solutions to all the fortunes which the immature female parents face.
In 1999 The National Teenage Pregnancy Strategy was launched in England. The scheme aimed to better the wellness of the state, addition instruction, employment chances and to undertake societal exclusion by forestalling unwanted gestations. It besides aimed at helping and back uping immature parents back into instruction employment or preparation.
Chase et. Al ( 2009 ) explains that this end was to be achieved through a national run with clear and improved messages about sex and gestation. There was to be greater aid for immature parents through the proviso of support services like lodging, kid attention supervising and lodging.
Furthermore some of the cardinal elements of Every Child Matters docket included immature people to bask do a positive part and bask economic well being.
The scheme does non look to be accomplishing its full potency because most of the immature female parents and professionals I interviewed have expressed adjustment, lodging and child care as a demand which is forestalling them to do a positive part and bask economic well being.
Therefore policy recommendations will be related to those household friendly policies that are specific to the single lodging and child care demands of adolescents, in order to enable them to maximize their full potency and parent successfully.
In indicating out issues environing stigma, some service users recounted how they are looked down upon and treated below the belt because they are immature Dendranthema grandifloruoms.
As to whether immature maternity should be viewed negatively, depends on the comparing between the life of a immature female parent prior to childbirth and whether her chances in life became limited after that. For some it helped them to settle down and go more focussed than was possible owing to their antecedently helter-skelter life style.
There is proviso in Government schemes like Youth Matters, Young people and pregnancy services, which addresses sex and relationship instruction, entree to preventives and counsel on benefits.
This addresses portion of the issue but does non turn to issues like experiences of maltreatment and disregard, experiencing unloved and rejected and a sense of belonging to a household which make the chances of being a immature Dendranthema grandifloruom more inviting.
My recommendations would be for policies that would undertake emotional troubles of adolescents on an single footing and promote credence of teenage Dendranthema grandifloruoms in the community.
With recommendations to pattern, Parton 1994a and Walker 2001 point out in Sherpard ( 2006 ) that there has been a displacement from an accent in response to necessitate to a response to hazard. Therefore for societal workers to be able to place demand they must be able to recognize it and utilize their statutory powers creatively.
In my experience with service users I realise that I have overlooked some demands based on premises or merely because I did non acquire the message.
Therefore Walker ( 2007 ) urges societal workers to listen actively, prosecute suitably and understand accurately the position points of service users. We must besides get the better of personal biass to be able to react suitably to a scope of complex personal and interpersonal state of affairss.
In my sentiment if inter bureau work is encouraged, there are new chances for professionals to listen and larn from the immature female parents. This will maneuver working with the female parents into a way which is likely to maintain them engaged and able to profit from available services. Social workers can in this manner construct on their ain strengths and develop farther the good work presently traveling on.
At the terminal of this essay, I have written approximately at the principle to research the demands of immature female parents as a subject due to its relevancy to Social work. I have besides written about what motivated us and our grounds for our picks.
I have besides written of our ethical considerations and our methodological analysis. I have explained why the qualitative research method was suited for our research.
I have evaluated the strengths explicating that the Participatory action method was extremely compatible with anti-discriminatory and anti oppressive pattern. Furthermore the construct of reflexiveness which is a constituent of qualitative research made it possible for us to turn up ourselves in our research.
I have looked at the restrictions of our research which included inability to show honorable positions due to the presence of professionals during the interview and our inability to generalise findings.
I have looked at different attacks from Maslow, Bradshaw, Doyal and Gough in specifying the construct of demand and their restrictions.
I have besides looked at the service users need for lodging, kid attention, finance and other demands and related it to the different constructs of demand.
I have besides written about some recommendations for policy and pattern which if decently resourced would stress the good work presently traveling on.