Mexico and Argentina are two of the most well known countries in the Latin America area. Both countries dealt with many issues during the twentieth century.
Mexico had many leaders during the 20th century while Argentina spent a third of the century in the Peron era. Mexico entered the 20th century with Porfirio Diaz as president. Diaz rule, which lasted until 1911 was known as Porfiriato. By 1910, 90% of the rural inhabitants of central Mexico were landless. During the Porfiriato, a two-tier society emerged with those able to take advantage of modernization became rich and the poor sank further into poverty.Diaz had Francisco Madero arrested and Diaz won the election.
After Madero was freed, he fled to San Antonio where he proclaimed a revolt. Madero soon found himself at the head of a successful movement. Diaz resigned on May 25, 1911 and went into permanent exile in Europe.
Madero adopted a cautious policy on land reform leading Zapata to issue his Plan of Ayala in November 1911. Huerta seized control of Mexico City and had Madero murdered. Huerta’s resignation further split the rebels into factions. The two rebel leaders, Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata teamed up against Carranza but were unsuccessful. Carranza also headed the Constitution of 1917.Obregon was elected president in 1920. Obregon hoped to end the widespread violence, which existed in Mexico. Obregon was assassinated on July 17, 1928, at a dinner to celebrate his reelection.
Calles ruled afterwards then Cardenas. World War II affected Mexico with their oil trade being cut short. Mexico also supported the Allies by taking part in the war.Miguel Aleman Valdes took office in December 1946.
Aleman became the first Mexican president to visit the United States as head of state. Aleman emphasized large-scale industrial and agricultural growth, as well as foreign investment but his own administration became tarnished by bribery and corruption.By the 1960s, student activism and clashes with the police troubled the country. Mexican presidents at this time underestimated the social discontent in Mexico. A school massacre occurred on October 2, 1968.
Soldiers and police fired upon around 10,000 students in the Plaza of the Three Cultures in Tlateloco. The massacre shocked the country as over 300 people died and others wounded and/or jailed. After this incident, Mexico would recover with their cities becoming tourist attractions by the 1970s.
Unlike Mexico, Argentina went in an entirely different path. Argentina had serious repercussions during the Great Depression. Unemployment and other hardships caused profound social and political unrest. Economic conditions improved substantially during the administration of General Augustin Justo. Roberto M. Ortiz, who took over Argentina after Justo, took vigorous steps to strengthen democracy in Argentina. Ortiz proclaimed neutrality after the outbreak of World War II in 1939.
Fearful that war with Germany was imminent, a military junta forced then-leader Ramirez from office on February 24, 1944. The central figure in the junta was Colonel Juan Domingo Peron. In July of 1944, the U.S. government accused Argentina of aiding the Axis powers. Finally, on March 27, 1945, the country declared war on Germany and Japan. With U.S.
sponsorship, Argentina became a charter member of the United Nations in June of 1945.On October 9, 1945, Peron was forced to resign from his three posts and was also imprisoned. This resignation triggered a government crisis that was resolved when his supporters obtained his release. Four days later, Peron married his mistress, Maria Eva Duarte, better known as Evita. The Peronistas supported Peron as its candidate for the presidency. Peron pursued prolabor and pronationalist policies when he was elected. Also, Evita, who became an influential member of his government, helped Peron during his presidency.
By the early 1950s, benefits to labor began to diminish. The sudden death of Evita in 1952, economic difficulties, increasing labor unrest, and his excommunication by the Roman Catholic Church weakened Peron’s position. In 1955, the military ousted Peron’s government. Peron was able to retain his labor support and influence in Argentine politics during exile. He was finally allowed to return to Argentina in 1973 and again elected president.
This time Peron’s third wife, Isabel de Peron, served as vice president. He died in office on July 1, 1974 and his Isabel succeeded him. Isabel de Peron became the first woman chief executive in the western hemisphere and led Argentina down a long road towards a better economy.Write a summary highlighting the major features of Venezuela (History of Americas) from 1900-1990.
(30 pts)During the twentieth century, Venezuela dealt with hardships and triumphs. From 1908 through 1935, Juan Vicente Gomez held total control of Venezuela. During this period, Gomez helped develop the Venezuela’s petroleum industry after large reserves of it were discovered near Maracaibo in 1917.
From 1945 to 1958, Venezuela experienced a period of political upheaval as the country alternated between dictatorship, civilian rule, and military rule. Civilian rule was reestablished in the country in 1958. Venezuela adopted its current constitution. The constitution provides for a democratic civilian rule.In 1969, the ruling party peacefully handed over power to the opposition for the first time in the country’s history. Venezuela joined the Andean Group in 1973.
This group is a cooperative political and economic association of most of the South American countries. Argentina’s government nationalized the petroleum industry in 1976. During this time, earnings soared as oil prices rose. The Venezuelan economy suffered as oil prices fell in the 1980s. Despite this downfall, the country’s standard of living remained one of the highest in Latin America.