##### Competency 13 Mathematics Instruction
 Constructivist Approach
 Students construct their own knowledge and/or meaning active experimentation and interaction with peers, teachers, materials discovery learning is encourage
 Divergent (OPEN-ENDED) Questions
 do not have one specific answer; thinking outside the box allows for creative thinking should be encouaged by all students many possible answers
 Convergent (CLOSED) Questions

• asking for a specific response
• these type of question can stiffle a child’s creativity

ex.

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; what unit do we use to measure a bag of potatoes?; ONLY 1 ANSWER (Pounds)

 Concrete-Representational-Abstract
 The 3 stages teachers should use when introducing a new topic
 Concrete Stage
 During this stage, the teacher introduces and models the concept by using tools or manipulatives;ex. using counters to model an addition problem
 Representational Stage
 During this stage, the teacher transforms manipulatives into a symbolic form by drawing pictures or making tally marks;;
 Abstract Stage
 During this stage, the teacher models how to complete the task using only numbers and math symbolsex. changing the tally marks into numbers like 3+5=8
 Problem-Solving Approach
 the primary goal of math known as a process and not a topic introduced through real-world situations allows student to explain and discuss ways fo arriving at their solution
 Draw a Picture
 Julie is 10 meters ahead fo Mary. Shon is 5 meters behind Julie.; Mary is 12 meters behind Lisa.; In what order ar ethe runner from first to last?;What problem solving strategy is most effective for solving this?
 Problem Solving Strategies
 working bckwards find a pattern act it out draw a picture guess, test, revise make a table try a simpler problem make a model guess ; check are all…
 Working Backwards
 Alan took \$20.00 to the grocery store.; He bought a chicken for \$3.09, celery for \$.79, milk for \$2.02, and some bread.; He received \$12. 42 in change.; How much did the bread cost?;What strategy would be used to solve this problem?
 Guess, Check, and Revise
 You have 30 bite-sized snickers to share with your sister. You want to keep 4 more than you give her.; How many should she get?;What problem solving strategy should you use?
 Authentic Assessments
 Used to assess students’s ability to apply what has been learned Includes:Student PortfoliosStudent-Teacher Interviews
 Summative Assessment
 These assessments are given at the end of a unit, end of a chapter exam, or end of year Does not help the teacher in modifying instruction or reteaching
 Formative Assessment
 This type of assessment is part of the instructional process. Provides information to the teacher during student learning so that instruction can be adjustedor arranged for reteaching
 Formative
 A quiz given after a lesson has been presented is what type of assessment