Conceptual system as “WiGarde” and compared it to

Conceptual Literature

problem with home security and the risks that should be considered has been
discussed and addressed by many researchers by proposing designs that may be
utilized and implemented. Majority of these systems involve the application of
technological tools. However, as these security systems have flooded the
market, the homeowners and other individuals are having difficulty in choosing
the right system that can be applied at their homes. This brief review
discusses some of these conceptualizations involving the implementation of a
technologically aided security systems.

A.   Utilization
of Visual Systems for Security

is a possibility that an intruder might compromise secret keys or root-of-trust
of an embedded device, the attacker can bypass most of the traditional
mechanisms if the security systems are not equipped to detect anomalies and
threats. Valente and Cardenas (2015) proposed an independent channel for
verification that will detect an integrity violation of the video received even
if the camera and its secret information has been compromised or if it has been
physically attacked. The proponents used visual systems to monitor the
different types of attackers specifically the naïve attack who is described as
the attacker who is oblivious of the detection mechanism, the timing attacker
who knows the detection algorithm and manipulate the system by trying to send
false alarms and lastly, the forgery attack who is aware of both the detection mechanism
and the visual challenge who might forge fake image. The findings suggested
that utilizing visual systems are effective in adding defense-in-depth
mechanisms for the improvement of the security cameras in terms of it

utilization of the off-the-shelf Wi-Fi channel state information (CSI) was
employed by Al-ganess, Li, Ma, and Liu (2016) to detect an intruder through the
door or window. The investigators designed a system which is said to be robust
and has the ability to avoid false alarms through a new method for interception
of the segments of signal intrusion based on the wavelength analysis and
dynamic time window. Adopting the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm has
enabled the classification of intrusion process. The researchers have named the
system as “WiGarde” and compared it to previous approaches with the same area
of interest. The results yielded to 94.5% accuracy after its implementation to
a dynamic environment for intrusion through door or window.

(2013) implemented an automated video surveillance system along the highway and
streets in order to test how the automated systems can adapt in the present
time. The system was able to detect intruders in those areas monitored by
cameras which have led it to send alert to the control room. However, there
were limited numbers of cameras in the monitored area that’s why some of the
areas were not in the line of sight of the control room. The multiple cameras
have enabled the human operators to monitor cars and people using surveillance
cameras whereas the researchers found it to be a complex process and very
context sensitive.

findings of the said studies might not be generalizable as the present study
sought to design a security system that can be applicable to be implemented
locally. The studies are of great foundation as the utilization of visual
systems for security has been greatly emphasized especially with the function
of detecting the intruders.

B.   Wireless
Network for Security Notification Medium

technology has evidently been progressively developed in the recent ears as it
has established its span of application in various fields and systems. Siobhani
(2015) opted to present an alternative way to analyze the reliability of Safety
Instrumented Systems (SIS) as it is known to have an important role in safety
barriers management and is assigned with various functions. This work
demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing wireless safety
system focusing on the reliability and failures of wireless SIS. To identify
and analyze the failures, the researcher employed the Failure, Modes, Effects
and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). The similarity between wired and wireless
sensors has provided the ability for the researcher to analyze the systems in
one common table. Based on the results, the researcher has inferred that
packer-loss (an indicator of wireless Qos) is the obvious underlying reason for
the new failures of wireless SIS. The link between the packet loss of Qos and
performance Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) were monitored. The packet-loss rate
was highlighted as the indicator of the WSN performance in the given time.

of the communication medium of sensors required practical and accurate method
to assess the reliability of the system to be implemented. The work of Siobhani
(2015) has concluded that even though the present generation has enabled people
to apply technology with automated systems using the wireless networks,
especially in the field of security, there is still a possibility for the
system to fail as there are many factors that can indicate and affect the
performance of the said system.

rates, possible home intrusions and other security threats can be addressed by
implementing an effective home security system through the application of
technological innovations. Security is said to be very influential and every
person needs security when they work as they often leave their homes
unattended. Nainwaya, Gupta, and Thakore (2015) proposed a system that can be
used to provide a security when the user is away from home. Mobile phone has
been utilized with SMS facility which turned out to be very useful when applied
to integrate security systems whereas the information sent by the security
system can be receive by the phone in the form of Short Message Service (SMS).
The system was tested on the latest smartphone model available which gives a
proper result. The researchers have noted their system as easy to use, very
simple and can also be installed at an economical cost. However, the SMS that
has been received by the house owner will depend on the strength range of the
signal that the phone can get from the mobile tower. In the end, the
researchers have concluded that through the utilization of security systems
with an aid of camera which can send alerts to the phone using SMS, the home
can be real-time monitored and controlled so that the possible security threats
can ring hollow.

results of the survey conducted by Vigneswari, Indhu, Namartha, Sathinisha and
Subashini (2015) showed that the projects that has been developed over the past
few years is not capable of providing alert in case of any unauthorized entry
in a room whereas they have also stated that the security system requires
manual power for the monitoring of the visual system or surveillance videos to
ensure security. The researchers proposed an automated system by utilizing a
raspberry pi that can function whenever a person enters into the room and it
can turn on the lights an fans without requiring manual switch. In addition, it
can also turn on the camera for monitoring of the events that are happening as
unauthorized intrusion might have happened. This system was implemented and
proved to be able to provide security as well as control over the electrical

risks involved in utilizing wireless networks for security systems were
enumerated by the researchers. The present study involves the utilization of
e-mails as a medium to notify the homeowners of the possible home intrusion.
This review has showed the comparison of utilizing wireless network and SMS and
has been noted to both rely on signals and strength of the connection. This
study mainly focuses on the utilization of wireless networks and mobile phones
as its notification medium to alert the home owner.

C.   Visitor
Tracking Using Facial Recognition

of security systems have flooded the market with a number of technologies that
works within the limitations of the systems that are available at the sites. The
use of machine learning for the detection and tracking of individuals has been
described by Murakami, Quingzhu, Watanabe and Hiroike (2017). The researchers
have presented the trials they have conducted that involved the utilization of
the cameras in assessing the events in public places such as railway stations,
airports, and stadiums with the main objective of maximizing the security to
make the society safe by utilizing security aids that can guard for prevention
of crime in these settings.

with this, the researchers emphasized the need of the security cameras to
identify particular people and trace their movements which can be useful in
tracking down the location of a specific individual or lost child within a
large area.  After the installation of
camera, it was set to identify regions of the video image that show people
whereas their erratic behavior is identifies by analyzing the path through the
space that they occupy. After running a number of trials, the results showed
the key features of utilizing security cameras as it can process video in real
time and provide a robust detection even under crowded conditions.

trials conducted by the researchers have yielded them to highlight the features
that can overcome security risks by utilization of security cameras for real
time video tacking. The key features noted include the high speed detection
technology that categorizes and searches using characteristics of external
appearance and movement and high speed person tracking technology that analyzes
in detail the entire image of the body and extracts the images of the same
person. Real-time people detection and tracking was made possible by combining
the technologies that have been developed especially the utilization of
security cameras. Although there are a number of reliable security cameras that
have been flooding the market, it is important to consider the functionality,
reliability, and user and cost friendliness of the technology.

recognition technique was proposed by Nandurkar and Nathaney (2017) to track
the individual using the Internet of Things (IOT) approach where the camera
screens and sends the push notice through Email and SMS alarm on portable when
an individual is identified. The paper demonstrated an examination of various viewpoints
and utilization of IOT approach which has indicated its viability for the trade
of information from one gadget to another. Their work has concentrated on
individual confirmation by utilizing face recognition strategies.

sum it up, facial recognition has been made possible with the present
technological advancement which is evidently seen with the recent studies and
how this system is utilized for security purposes. This present study aims to
create a system combining the reviewed concepts namely the utilization of
visual systems to monitor and track visitors at home and send notification to
mobile phones using wireless network. It can be observed that this study will
also utilize the technological advancement as its foundation and make the best
use of it for security purposes.

Related Literature

security is one of the major necessities that a person should highly invest at
as people often leave their homes unattended which can leave possibilities for
it to be a prey for home intrusions by unauthorized visitors and other security
threats that people often neglect to consider. This literature review will not
venture on the topics involving the intruder’s classifications and their
behaviors as the scope of this study only extends to the development of home
security systems which consists mainly of wireless and hardwired systems. In
line with this, this review is aimed at illustrating some of the key issues
involving the implementation of systems utilizing technological applications
for security purposes.


1: Detection of Security Threats

Security cameras have notably been extensively used for
security purposes. The prevalence of the utilization of these cameras are said
to have contributed to the improvement of the security aspects in a system
through the computer’s access and control over its line of vision.

Challenges in the detection and processing of anomalies in
surveillance are discussed by Saini, Ahir and Ganatra (2016). The researchers
proposed anomaly detection to design an intelligent control system utilizing
camera. This paper focused on the study of soft computing approaches for
anomaly detection whereas the surveillance data were generated directly
generated through camera and is then transmitted over the network for storage
purposes. The process conducted to gather the data is done on a real time basis
wherein when an anomaly is detected; the intelligent system is expected to
produce an alert.

Nearest neighbor, information theoretic clustering bases,
classification based, spectral and statistical based were among the various techniques
that were enumerated by the proponents which can be utilized to classify
anomalies in the construction of the intelligent systems. These proposed
techniques, as concluded by the researchers, can be employed and applied to
design proactive defense systems.

As there is a number of existing home security systems in the
market today Bangali and Shaligram (2014) conducted a market research through
the use of survey and have come up with the common parameters or
characteristics of home security systems namely: 24-hour monitoring of
intruder, ease of use, reliability, efficiency, and fast and precise
notification system.

Two systems for home security where proposed. The first
system used web camera which detects a motion and gives security alert through sound
and through the mail of the owner. The second method used the SMS method which
uses GSMGPS Module (sim548c) and Atmega644p microcontroller, sensors, relays
and buzzers. a model of a smart home was designed by the researchers for the
implementation of the security systems. The prototype consists of various
sensors like Infrared, temperature, gas, light and etc. The web camera based
security system as expected, detects the motion and sends email to the
homeowner. Through the utilization of this software, the researchers were able
to make video streaming possible.

The researchers have concluded that utilization of these
systems although they have a great difference in terms of how it is
cost-effective is very useful especially when the homeowner is not in the
vicinity of his or her house and even when the home is locked where possible
intrusions or accidents can unpredictably happen at any time.

2: Automated Security

security should be one of the top concerns for everyone who owns or rents a home
as once it is left unattended for most of the time, the home invasion crimes
are its peak. Safe and secure residential place is a necessity for every
individual especially when most members of the household are working.

survey by Chitnis, Deshpande and Shaligram (2016) was conducted on people from
diverse backgrounds about their awareness with the advanced Home OS and analyze
their need for security. The paper also studied the necessity for security
systems in situations where home burglaries are rising at an exponential rate.
The data were analyzed using the graphical method for the researchers to
identify the relative significance of home security.

work mainly concentrated on the security aspect of home automation and also
explains the concept of security and the concept of intruder in the present
time. The paper highlighted the shortcomings of the existing home automation
systems in determining and preventing intruders from breaking into the home
whereas they have highly emphasized that the possible intruder might be highly
skilled. The findings infer that many factors contribute to the need for
advanced home security whereas the researchers have noted the cases of having
kids and aged person at home or location as one of the significant considerations.
Proper implementation and development of home automation is important as such
system can provide a sense of security at home which will also put their mind
at ease.

The designs of smart homes have undergone metamorphosis given
the advancements made by technology and its application in the recent years.
The designs have evolved from designs up to what we find now as smart home
technologies which can function in a variety of settings. Dahmen, Cook, Wang
and Honglei (2017) investigated existing commercial products and other numerous
research works that focused on the identification of potential security
threats. Wide ranges of technological components have been developed to sense,
detect, assess and respond to a variety of security threats in home settings.
The results of the investigation showed that there is a tremendous need for
further research for a much more improved technology for the prevention of
security risks from arising which can lead to the transformation of a house
into smart homes.

Topic 3: Visual Systems for Crime Prevention

Security cameras became such a part of everyday life that
their presence may escape from our conscious attention. Their presence has been
said to discourage “would-be-criminals” to commit their crime as recordings can
identify people who have committed crime. Examining the impact of cameras on
crime intervention, a situation in which the classic bystander effect has been
uncovered by Bommel, Prooijen, Elffers and Lange (2013). In their experimental
set up, the participants witnessed how another confederate participant stole
money with the presence of two or no other bystanders. The researchers used
security camera to make people feel watched and the researchers expected to
replicate the bystander effect without the security camera’s presence and the
reduction of bystander effect with the presence of security camera.

The findings revealed that without camera, the bystanders
were less likely to stop the crime from happening even when other bystanders
are present but, when there is a camera present, the effect was attenuated. The
camera has been noted by the researchers to have increased the intervention of
crime when people are least likely to help even with the presence of other

The Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) that has been gaining a
worldwide popularity is best known for its uses for security purposes. People
have often thought that CCTV systems to function to “prevent crime” without
considering the number of pertinent issues, monitoring practices, evidence
collection and even the training as utilization of security cameras require
manpower to watch over the surveillance data for anomaly detection.

Caplan, Kennedy and Piza (2010) argued the simple truth that
video surveillance often gets lost whereas they have also stated that the
cameras themselves cannot stop a crime as it can only determine potential
offenders and security risks. The investigators have conducted a project which
sought to fill the specific gaps in the CCTV literature through a multi-level
analysis of the police-led video surveillance system in Newark, NJ. Simply put,
the researchers have attempted to explore how video surveillance effect can be
maximized for security purposes and detect security anomalies. The findings
have suggested that the initial installation of camera may signify and increase
risk to offenders as there is a low chance for threats to happen due to the
presence of the security aid. But, the results have also showed that over time,
the potential offenders notice that the camera is not accompanied with
increased police response or presence which can lead to their belief that there
is no risk for punishment if they misbehave.


            Various studies that have been
conducted recently have been evident to analyze security systems and its
functionality in the prevention of the occurrence of various security threats
especially when the home is left unattended. There have been studies that aimed
to design Smart Homes which consist of automate detectors that can send alert
or signal for the homeowner to be aware of the threat. Nainwaya et al. (2015)
proposed a system that is capable of sending alerts when a security system is
compromised to the mobile phone of the homeowners. This notion is not congruent
with the survey conducted by Vigneswari et al. (2015) which stated that the current   projects that have been developed over the
past years are not capable of alerting the owners as most of the security
systems require manual power to monitor the surveillance data and detection of
the threat. In addition to this, Siobhani (2015) has also argued that one
factor that can indicate the performance of a system is the rate of the
packet-loss of the wireless network. It can be inferred the availability of
security systems that can reduce the manual power is varying from one locale to

line with this, the cameras were seen to be highly significant in aiding the
security systems with the purpose of monitoring a certain line of vision.
Valente and Cadenas (2015) highlighted the function of visual systems in terms
of detecting the different types of attackers for adding defense-in-depth
mechanisms and other security measures for security threats. This work is
congruent with the works of Al-ganess et al. (2016) and Rothkrantz (2013) in
terms of detection of anomalies in an environment as their results have showed
success rates in determining the intrusion or security threats by utilizing
cameras. In addition Bommel et al. (2013) also demonstrated the similar data in
terms of crime intervention with the presence of a camera. However, Caplan et
al. (2010) argued that even though a camera can detect security threats or
anomalies, the video surveillance themselves would not be able to stop the
crime from happening.

sum it up, there are many considerations to be considered in the implementation
of a security system. This brief review has evidently described how each and
other locale varies in the technological advancement in terms of its
application in their security systems. It can be inferred from all the reviewed
articles and studies that there is a high need for further research for the
improvement of the current security systems not only for its functionality but
also with other considerations that other homeowners will highly value
specifically the user and cost friendliness, reliability, and most importantly,
the accessibility.