Conceptual LiteratureTheproblem with home security and the risks that should be considered has beendiscussed and addressed by many researchers by proposing designs that may beutilized and implemented. Majority of these systems involve the application oftechnological tools. However, as these security systems have flooded themarket, the homeowners and other individuals are having difficulty in choosingthe right system that can be applied at their homes. This brief reviewdiscusses some of these conceptualizations involving the implementation of atechnologically aided security systems.
A. Utilizationof Visual Systems for SecurityThereis a possibility that an intruder might compromise secret keys or root-of-trustof an embedded device, the attacker can bypass most of the traditionalmechanisms if the security systems are not equipped to detect anomalies andthreats. Valente and Cardenas (2015) proposed an independent channel forverification that will detect an integrity violation of the video received evenif the camera and its secret information has been compromised or if it has beenphysically attacked.
The proponents used visual systems to monitor thedifferent types of attackers specifically the naïve attack who is described asthe attacker who is oblivious of the detection mechanism, the timing attackerwho knows the detection algorithm and manipulate the system by trying to sendfalse alarms and lastly, the forgery attack who is aware of both the detection mechanismand the visual challenge who might forge fake image. The findings suggestedthat utilizing visual systems are effective in adding defense-in-depthmechanisms for the improvement of the security cameras in terms of ittrustworthiness.Theutilization of the off-the-shelf Wi-Fi channel state information (CSI) wasemployed by Al-ganess, Li, Ma, and Liu (2016) to detect an intruder through thedoor or window. The investigators designed a system which is said to be robustand has the ability to avoid false alarms through a new method for interceptionof the segments of signal intrusion based on the wavelength analysis anddynamic time window.
Adopting the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm hasenabled the classification of intrusion process. The researchers have named thesystem as “WiGarde” and compared it to previous approaches with the same areaof interest. The results yielded to 94.5% accuracy after its implementation toa dynamic environment for intrusion through door or window.Rothkrantz(2013) implemented an automated video surveillance system along the highway andstreets in order to test how the automated systems can adapt in the presenttime. The system was able to detect intruders in those areas monitored bycameras which have led it to send alert to the control room. However, therewere limited numbers of cameras in the monitored area that’s why some of theareas were not in the line of sight of the control room. The multiple camerashave enabled the human operators to monitor cars and people using surveillancecameras whereas the researchers found it to be a complex process and verycontext sensitive.
Thefindings of the said studies might not be generalizable as the present studysought to design a security system that can be applicable to be implementedlocally. The studies are of great foundation as the utilization of visualsystems for security has been greatly emphasized especially with the functionof detecting the intruders.B. WirelessNetwork for Security Notification MediumWirelesstechnology has evidently been progressively developed in the recent ears as ithas established its span of application in various fields and systems. Siobhani(2015) opted to present an alternative way to analyze the reliability of SafetyInstrumented Systems (SIS) as it is known to have an important role in safetybarriers management and is assigned with various functions.
This workdemonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing wireless safetysystem focusing on the reliability and failures of wireless SIS. To identifyand analyze the failures, the researcher employed the Failure, Modes, Effectsand Criticality Analysis (FMECA). The similarity between wired and wirelesssensors has provided the ability for the researcher to analyze the systems inone common table.
Based on the results, the researcher has inferred thatpacker-loss (an indicator of wireless Qos) is the obvious underlying reason forthe new failures of wireless SIS. The link between the packet loss of Qos andperformance Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) were monitored. The packet-loss ratewas highlighted as the indicator of the WSN performance in the given time.Changeof the communication medium of sensors required practical and accurate methodto assess the reliability of the system to be implemented. The work of Siobhani(2015) has concluded that even though the present generation has enabled peopleto apply technology with automated systems using the wireless networks,especially in the field of security, there is still a possibility for thesystem to fail as there are many factors that can indicate and affect theperformance of the said system.Crimerates, possible home intrusions and other security threats can be addressed byimplementing an effective home security system through the application oftechnological innovations.
Security is said to be very influential and everyperson needs security when they work as they often leave their homesunattended. Nainwaya, Gupta, and Thakore (2015) proposed a system that can beused to provide a security when the user is away from home. Mobile phone hasbeen utilized with SMS facility which turned out to be very useful when appliedto integrate security systems whereas the information sent by the securitysystem can be receive by the phone in the form of Short Message Service (SMS).The system was tested on the latest smartphone model available which gives aproper result.
The researchers have noted their system as easy to use, verysimple and can also be installed at an economical cost. However, the SMS thathas been received by the house owner will depend on the strength range of thesignal that the phone can get from the mobile tower. In the end, theresearchers have concluded that through the utilization of security systemswith an aid of camera which can send alerts to the phone using SMS, the homecan be real-time monitored and controlled so that the possible security threatscan ring hollow. Theresults of the survey conducted by Vigneswari, Indhu, Namartha, Sathinisha andSubashini (2015) showed that the projects that has been developed over the pastfew years is not capable of providing alert in case of any unauthorized entryin a room whereas they have also stated that the security system requiresmanual power for the monitoring of the visual system or surveillance videos toensure security. The researchers proposed an automated system by utilizing araspberry pi that can function whenever a person enters into the room and itcan turn on the lights an fans without requiring manual switch. In addition, itcan also turn on the camera for monitoring of the events that are happening asunauthorized intrusion might have happened.
This system was implemented andproved to be able to provide security as well as control over the electricaldevices.Therisks involved in utilizing wireless networks for security systems wereenumerated by the researchers. The present study involves the utilization ofe-mails as a medium to notify the homeowners of the possible home intrusion.This review has showed the comparison of utilizing wireless network and SMS andhas been noted to both rely on signals and strength of the connection. Thisstudy mainly focuses on the utilization of wireless networks and mobile phonesas its notification medium to alert the home owner.C. VisitorTracking Using Facial RecognitionDevelopmentof security systems have flooded the market with a number of technologies thatworks within the limitations of the systems that are available at the sites.
Theuse of machine learning for the detection and tracking of individuals has beendescribed by Murakami, Quingzhu, Watanabe and Hiroike (2017). The researchershave presented the trials they have conducted that involved the utilization ofthe cameras in assessing the events in public places such as railway stations,airports, and stadiums with the main objective of maximizing the security tomake the society safe by utilizing security aids that can guard for preventionof crime in these settings. Alongwith this, the researchers emphasized the need of the security cameras toidentify particular people and trace their movements which can be useful intracking down the location of a specific individual or lost child within alarge area.
After the installation ofcamera, it was set to identify regions of the video image that show peoplewhereas their erratic behavior is identifies by analyzing the path through thespace that they occupy. After running a number of trials, the results showedthe key features of utilizing security cameras as it can process video in realtime and provide a robust detection even under crowded conditions.Thetrials conducted by the researchers have yielded them to highlight the featuresthat can overcome security risks by utilization of security cameras for realtime video tacking. The key features noted include the high speed detectiontechnology that categorizes and searches using characteristics of externalappearance and movement and high speed person tracking technology that analyzesin detail the entire image of the body and extracts the images of the sameperson. Real-time people detection and tracking was made possible by combiningthe technologies that have been developed especially the utilization ofsecurity cameras. Although there are a number of reliable security cameras thathave been flooding the market, it is important to consider the functionality,reliability, and user and cost friendliness of the technology.
Facerecognition technique was proposed by Nandurkar and Nathaney (2017) to trackthe individual using the Internet of Things (IOT) approach where the camerascreens and sends the push notice through Email and SMS alarm on portable whenan individual is identified. The paper demonstrated an examination of various viewpointsand utilization of IOT approach which has indicated its viability for the tradeof information from one gadget to another. Their work has concentrated onindividual confirmation by utilizing face recognition strategies.Tosum it up, facial recognition has been made possible with the presenttechnological advancement which is evidently seen with the recent studies andhow this system is utilized for security purposes. This present study aims tocreate a system combining the reviewed concepts namely the utilization ofvisual systems to monitor and track visitors at home and send notification tomobile phones using wireless network.
It can be observed that this study willalso utilize the technological advancement as its foundation and make the bestuse of it for security purposes.Related LiteratureHomesecurity is one of the major necessities that a person should highly invest atas people often leave their homes unattended which can leave possibilities forit to be a prey for home intrusions by unauthorized visitors and other securitythreats that people often neglect to consider. This literature review will notventure on the topics involving the intruder’s classifications and theirbehaviors as the scope of this study only extends to the development of homesecurity systems which consists mainly of wireless and hardwired systems. Inline with this, this review is aimed at illustrating some of the key issuesinvolving the implementation of systems utilizing technological applicationsfor security purposes.
Topic1: Detection of Security Threats Security cameras have notably been extensively used forsecurity purposes. The prevalence of the utilization of these cameras are saidto have contributed to the improvement of the security aspects in a systemthrough the computer’s access and control over its line of vision.Challenges in the detection and processing of anomalies insurveillance are discussed by Saini, Ahir and Ganatra (2016). The researchersproposed anomaly detection to design an intelligent control system utilizingcamera. This paper focused on the study of soft computing approaches foranomaly detection whereas the surveillance data were generated directlygenerated through camera and is then transmitted over the network for storagepurposes. The process conducted to gather the data is done on a real time basiswherein when an anomaly is detected; the intelligent system is expected toproduce an alert.Nearest neighbor, information theoretic clustering bases,classification based, spectral and statistical based were among the various techniquesthat were enumerated by the proponents which can be utilized to classifyanomalies in the construction of the intelligent systems.
These proposedtechniques, as concluded by the researchers, can be employed and applied todesign proactive defense systems.As there is a number of existing home security systems in themarket today Bangali and Shaligram (2014) conducted a market research throughthe use of survey and have come up with the common parameters orcharacteristics of home security systems namely: 24-hour monitoring ofintruder, ease of use, reliability, efficiency, and fast and precisenotification system.Two systems for home security where proposed. The firstsystem used web camera which detects a motion and gives security alert through soundand through the mail of the owner. The second method used the SMS method whichuses GSMGPS Module (sim548c) and Atmega644p microcontroller, sensors, relaysand buzzers. a model of a smart home was designed by the researchers for theimplementation of the security systems. The prototype consists of varioussensors like Infrared, temperature, gas, light and etc.
The web camera basedsecurity system as expected, detects the motion and sends email to thehomeowner. Through the utilization of this software, the researchers were ableto make video streaming possible.The researchers have concluded that utilization of thesesystems although they have a great difference in terms of how it iscost-effective is very useful especially when the homeowner is not in thevicinity of his or her house and even when the home is locked where possibleintrusions or accidents can unpredictably happen at any time. Topic2: Automated SecurityHomesecurity should be one of the top concerns for everyone who owns or rents a homeas once it is left unattended for most of the time, the home invasion crimesare its peak.
Safe and secure residential place is a necessity for everyindividual especially when most members of the household are working.Asurvey by Chitnis, Deshpande and Shaligram (2016) was conducted on people fromdiverse backgrounds about their awareness with the advanced Home OS and analyzetheir need for security. The paper also studied the necessity for securitysystems in situations where home burglaries are rising at an exponential rate.The data were analyzed using the graphical method for the researchers toidentify the relative significance of home security.
Thiswork mainly concentrated on the security aspect of home automation and alsoexplains the concept of security and the concept of intruder in the presenttime. The paper highlighted the shortcomings of the existing home automationsystems in determining and preventing intruders from breaking into the homewhereas they have highly emphasized that the possible intruder might be highlyskilled. The findings infer that many factors contribute to the need foradvanced home security whereas the researchers have noted the cases of havingkids and aged person at home or location as one of the significant considerations.
Proper implementation and development of home automation is important as suchsystem can provide a sense of security at home which will also put their mindat ease.The designs of smart homes have undergone metamorphosis giventhe advancements made by technology and its application in the recent years.The designs have evolved from designs up to what we find now as smart hometechnologies which can function in a variety of settings. Dahmen, Cook, Wangand Honglei (2017) investigated existing commercial products and other numerousresearch works that focused on the identification of potential securitythreats. Wide ranges of technological components have been developed to sense,detect, assess and respond to a variety of security threats in home settings.The results of the investigation showed that there is a tremendous need forfurther research for a much more improved technology for the prevention ofsecurity risks from arising which can lead to the transformation of a houseinto smart homes.
Topic 3: Visual Systems for Crime PreventionSecurity cameras became such a part of everyday life thattheir presence may escape from our conscious attention. Their presence has beensaid to discourage “would-be-criminals” to commit their crime as recordings canidentify people who have committed crime. Examining the impact of cameras oncrime intervention, a situation in which the classic bystander effect has beenuncovered by Bommel, Prooijen, Elffers and Lange (2013). In their experimentalset up, the participants witnessed how another confederate participant stolemoney with the presence of two or no other bystanders. The researchers usedsecurity camera to make people feel watched and the researchers expected toreplicate the bystander effect without the security camera’s presence and thereduction of bystander effect with the presence of security camera.The findings revealed that without camera, the bystanderswere less likely to stop the crime from happening even when other bystandersare present but, when there is a camera present, the effect was attenuated.
Thecamera has been noted by the researchers to have increased the intervention ofcrime when people are least likely to help even with the presence of otherbystanders.The Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) that has been gaining aworldwide popularity is best known for its uses for security purposes. Peoplehave often thought that CCTV systems to function to “prevent crime” withoutconsidering the number of pertinent issues, monitoring practices, evidencecollection and even the training as utilization of security cameras requiremanpower to watch over the surveillance data for anomaly detection. Caplan, Kennedy and Piza (2010) argued the simple truth thatvideo surveillance often gets lost whereas they have also stated that thecameras themselves cannot stop a crime as it can only determine potentialoffenders and security risks. The investigators have conducted a project whichsought to fill the specific gaps in the CCTV literature through a multi-levelanalysis of the police-led video surveillance system in Newark, NJ. Simply put,the researchers have attempted to explore how video surveillance effect can bemaximized for security purposes and detect security anomalies. The findingshave suggested that the initial installation of camera may signify and increaserisk to offenders as there is a low chance for threats to happen due to thepresence of the security aid. But, the results have also showed that over time,the potential offenders notice that the camera is not accompanied withincreased police response or presence which can lead to their belief that thereis no risk for punishment if they misbehave.
Synthesis Various studies that have beenconducted recently have been evident to analyze security systems and itsfunctionality in the prevention of the occurrence of various security threatsespecially when the home is left unattended. There have been studies that aimedto design Smart Homes which consist of automate detectors that can send alertor signal for the homeowner to be aware of the threat. Nainwaya et al. (2015)proposed a system that is capable of sending alerts when a security system iscompromised to the mobile phone of the homeowners. This notion is not congruentwith the survey conducted by Vigneswari et al. (2015) which stated that the current projects that have been developed over thepast years are not capable of alerting the owners as most of the securitysystems require manual power to monitor the surveillance data and detection ofthe threat.
In addition to this, Siobhani (2015) has also argued that onefactor that can indicate the performance of a system is the rate of thepacket-loss of the wireless network. It can be inferred the availability ofsecurity systems that can reduce the manual power is varying from one locale toanother. Inline with this, the cameras were seen to be highly significant in aiding thesecurity systems with the purpose of monitoring a certain line of vision.
Valente and Cadenas (2015) highlighted the function of visual systems in termsof detecting the different types of attackers for adding defense-in-depthmechanisms and other security measures for security threats. This work iscongruent with the works of Al-ganess et al. (2016) and Rothkrantz (2013) interms of detection of anomalies in an environment as their results have showedsuccess rates in determining the intrusion or security threats by utilizingcameras. In addition Bommel et al.
(2013) also demonstrated the similar data interms of crime intervention with the presence of a camera. However, Caplan etal. (2010) argued that even though a camera can detect security threats oranomalies, the video surveillance themselves would not be able to stop thecrime from happening.Tosum it up, there are many considerations to be considered in the implementationof a security system. This brief review has evidently described how each andother locale varies in the technological advancement in terms of itsapplication in their security systems. It can be inferred from all the reviewedarticles and studies that there is a high need for further research for theimprovement of the current security systems not only for its functionality butalso with other considerations that other homeowners will highly valuespecifically the user and cost friendliness, reliability, and most importantly,the accessibility.