Cooking Methods Affecting Vitamin C Levels Food ScienceExperimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherArmaan Sahni640 W.
Scott St. Chicago, IL 60610Grade #8Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 3Purpose and Hypothesis Page 4-5Review of Literature Page 6Materials and Procedure Page 7-9Results Page 10-11Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 12-13Reference List Page 14AcknowledgmentsIn this I got a lot of helpful tips from my parents. When my experiment was not going the way I had planned, they helped me solve the problem I was facing. For example, when I was dropping the Iodine Indicator in the juice of the fruits I wouldn’t see a lot of change in the color. The tip that they gave me was that maybe I could change the way I make the indicator or increase the amount of time I am cooking the fruit. I tried changing the times first and that ended up working.
I could actually rate the darkness of the color and there was a perceptible difference in color after putting the Iodine Indicator. Purpose and HypothesisPurpose:The purpose of this experiment is to test how cooking a fruit in two ways affects the Vitamin C in the fruit. After I cook the fruit I would try to squeeze juice out of it and pour the juice into a tube. In this experiment, I am not testing the actual Vitamin C level. I am testing the color of the juice after I drop the Indicator in the tube. The color of the juice corresponds to the Vitamin C level.
The darker the color the less the Vitamin C. Hypothesis:The juices that are getting boiled will lose the most Vitamin C. The juices that are getting steamed will lose some Vitamin, but not the most. The juices that will stay raw will have the most Vitamin C. When the food is boiled for the longest time (5 minutes) it will lose the most Vitamin C out of every container. Then the 3 minutes boiled juice comes after and then is the 1 minute boil.
The steamed ones come next and the one steamed for the longest time comes next. Then the rest follow. This is because according to my research Vitamin C is soluble to water and when water is boiling with the juice the Vitamin C leaches out of the fruit and degrades into the water. When you boil a fruit you have more water in the pot with the juice, so more Vitamin C will degrade. If the juice is raw then the Vitamin does not degrade or substantially decrease. If you are steaming the fruit you don’t have water, but you are still heating the juice, which also causes a decrease in Vitamin C. The main factors that reduce the amount of Vitamin C in something is heat and the amount of water surrounding the fruit.BOIL- 5 MINUTES ALL VALUES START FROM THE BOIL- 3 MINUTES LEAST AMOUNT OF VITAMIN CBOIL-1 MINUTE TO THE MOST.
STEAM- 5 MINUTESSTEAM- 3 MINUTESSTEAM- 1 MINUTERAW- THE CONTAINERS SHOULD ALL BE SIMILAR WITH THE MOST VITAMINReview of LiteratureYou need Vitamin C in your body because it helps the growth of tissues and it creates protein to make you skin. Vitamin C is also used to heal wounds. Since Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin you get it from mainly citrus fruits. Your body does not store the Vitamin. If you lack Vitamin C then that makes various tissues break down in your body. People who are smokers or people on drugs usually are low on Vitamin C. Without Vitamin C you could feel very tired and could also have many joint pains. The reason that cooking a food could destroy the Vitamin C inside of it is because it is easily degraded through oxidation, exposure to heat and through cooking in water.
The most vitamins are retained when there is less contact with water and a shorter cooking time. Air exposure could also destroy potential vitamins.Vitamin C is one of the least stable of all vitamins.
Normal cooking usually doesn’t affect Vitamin C levels that much; the longer you cook and the higher the temperature you use, the more oxidation. Or the less Vitamin C in the food. Last, the amount of Vitamin C in a food depends on the availability in the vegetable. The Vitamin leaches out of the fruit and degrades into cooking water. It is recommended that cooking for short periods of times minimizes the loss of Vitamin C.Materials and ProcedureMake Iodine IndicatorMix 1 tablespoon of cornstarch with water.
Add about 1 cup of water to the paste.Boil the paste for 5 minutesUsing a dropper, mix 10 drops of the boiled solution to about ? of a cup of water.Add Iodine to the result of the previous step until the solution turns purple.
Set UpGet the tomatoes, pineapples, and . Note: You are going to have 14 trials for every fruit. This means that you need 14 different chunks of each fruit to test. Keep in mind since you are repeating the whole experiment again you need to two of each container to do the same thing.Label six containers “boiled”. Two container would be the juice boiled for the 1 minute. Then, the next two containers would be boiled for 3 minutes. The last two containers would be the juice boiled for 5 minutes.
Label another six containers “steamed”. Two containers would be the juice steamed for the 1 minute. Then, the next two containers would be steamed for 3 minutes. The last two containers would be steamed for 5 minutes.Label the last two containers raw. You need only two container for the control because the time will not affect the amount of Vitamin C.
Cut out 14 different chunks of tomatoes, pineapples, and bell peppers. Try to have the chunks be about the same size.InstructionsIn the experiment, you will be testing 3 fruits.
The fruits are Tomatoes, Pineapples, and Bell Peppers. In order to complete the experiment section, you need to know that for each fruit you need to go through the scenarios section. The Test a Fruit section and the Scenarios section help you complete the experiment.ScenariosScenario 1: Boil 1 minuteScenario 2: Boil 3 minutesScenario 3: Boil 5 minutesScenario 4: Steam 1 minuteScenario 5: Steam 3 minutesScenario 6: Steam 5 minutesScenario 7: Repeat the scenarios again when done. Complete the scenario sequence twice for each fruit.Test A FruitCook it according to the scenario.
Squeeze the juice out of the fruit and put it in the right container according to the scenario.Repeat steps 12 and 13 until the scenarios for the all your fruits are done.When finished go to the section “After Experiment”After ExperimentAt this time, the juices should all be in the right containers, and you need to get the iodine indicator.Put a number of drops of the Iodine Indicator in each container. Keep in mind the number of drops you put should never change. Whichever container turns into a darker color, that container has the least amount of Vitamin C.Using a scale of 1-10 examine the color of the juices with 10 being the darkest color and 1 being the lightest color. Record the results in a table.
Look at how the cooking method and time affected the amount of Vitamin C in an object. Materials: Quantity:Tomatoes14 ChunksPineapple14 Chunks Onions 14 ChunksIodine 1 BottleWeighing Scale1 ScaleTest Tubes28 TubesCorn Starch1 TablespoonWater About 2 CupsGrater1 GraterResultsOnions: 1st TestBoilSteamControl4 Minutes2328 Minutes35N/A12 Minutes57N/AOnions: 2nd TestBoilSteamControl4 Minutes4428 Minutes4 5N/A12 Minutes36N/ATomatoes: 1st TestBoilSteamControl4 Minutes3448 Minutes45N/A12 Minutes47N/ATomatoes: 2nd TestBoilSteamControl4 Minutes3448 Minutes45N/A12 Minutes67N/APineapple: 1st TestBoilSteamControl4 Minutes334 8 Minutes44N/A12 Minutes64N/APineapple: 2nd TestBoilSteamControl4 Minutes4348 Minutes44N/A12 Minutes56N/AThe numbers are the rating I gave the juice based off of the darkness of the color. The darker the color the less the Vitamin C. My scale was from 1-10 where 10 is the darkest color and 1 is the lightest. I had two tests for each fruit, but 14 different trials. This is because a trial is when you are trying a new fruit for the next test.
Every rating is based off of a different chunk of the fruit. One test has 7 trials and the other has 7 more.Conclusion, Reflection, and ApplicationConclusion:My science fair project is testing how the cooking method and time affect the Vitamin C in a fruit. I wanted to find out if it is healthier to eat a fruit by eating it raw or cooking the fruit first. I hypothesized that the longer the time the fruit was cooked the less the Vitamin C. Also, boiling would be the worst cooking method for the fruit and would reduce the Vitamin levels the most. I tested this by boiling, steaming, or controlling the fruit.
Then I would just squeeze juice out of the fruit and pour it into the corresponding labeled container. Next, I would drop the Iodine Indicator into the juice and rate the darkness of the color. The darkest color would have the least amount of Vitamin C. My hypothesis was mostly correct because the juices that tended to be the darkest were the ones that were cooked for the longest time. I was partially wrong because in some cases boiling was not the worst cooking method in conserving Vitamin C. The results for boiling and steaming were really close.
I learned that the results might have been closer than I had expected, but the trend was still what I had predicted. Last, I learned that Vitamin C does leech out of a fruit when heated, but you need to heat the fruit for a while in order to get better results. Reflection:I tried my best to attain the most accurate results in my experiment. I had two trials just in case I make a mistake. The results were similar most of the time between the trials, so they were mostly accurate.
I would change the indicator part of the experiment and try to use a Vitamin C tablet instead because at first the indicator was not working. This could have affected the results, but we got it to work again. I would try this with Vitamin A or D and see how that works. I would also try other cooking methods or maybe even freezing methods.Application:This relates to the world because if you want to eat healthy then you should try to understand how cooking affects Vitamin levels. Is the best to keep it raw or heat it. Maybe in some other experiment freezing methods could affect the Vitamin C levels. My experiment also explains how Vitamin C reacts when it is heated, especially when there is water.
This is because when I boiled the fruit the Vitamin C leaches out of the fruit and degrades into the water. Also, when the Iodine reacted with the starch to create the Indicator and when the Indicator reacted with the Vitamin C, the color of the solution changed. That explains why and how those substances react with each other.Reference ListJD, M. W.
(2015, October 05). Raw or Cooked? How Best to Prep 11 Fruits and Vegetables. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/marlynn-wei-md-jd/raw-or-cooked-how-best-to_b_8238636.htmlVitamin C (Ascorbic acid).
Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/vitamin-c-ascorbic-acidNewson, D. L. (n.d.).
Vitamin C Deficiency. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://patient.info/health/vitamin-c-deficiency-leaflet Mandal, M.
D. (2017, October 30). What is Metabolism? Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-is-Metabolism.aspxDetermination of Vitamin C Concentration by Titration.
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.canterbury.ac.
nz/media/documents/science-outreach/vitaminc_iodine.pdf This was created by the University of Cantebury.Subramanian, S. (2009, March 31).
Fact or Fiction: Raw Veggies are Healthier than Cooked Ones. Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.scientificamerican.
com/article/raw-veggies-are-healthier/Does Cooking Food Reduce the Vitamin Content? (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://healthyeating.
sfgate.com/cooking-food-reduce-vitamin-content-5164.html(1999, March 05). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://www.madsci.
org/posts/archives/1999-03/920691753.Ch.r.htmlIgwemmar, N. C., Kolawole, S. A., & Imran, I.
A. (n.d.). Effect Of Heating On Vitamin C Content Of Some Selected Vegetables.
Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/nov2013/Effect-Of-Heating-On-Vitamin-C-Content-Of-Some-Selected-Vegetables.pdf