Critical thinking is one of the most important basic
competences that is appreciated in modern society. In practice, this is
manifested in the ability to accept and verify the various assumptions, analyse
different approaches, make informed decisions, and argue. Critical thinking can
and must be developed and cultivated, but not everyone can bravely answer how
to do it.
decision-making, communication, world perception, and other essential processes
of human activity related to the reception and transmission of information,
processing, knowledge creation and assimilation.
Everyone creates and uses
information and knowledge about it and a personal information or knowledge
management strategy when an individual perceives the importance of information
in his or her activity and purposefully manages all relevant information
creation, acquisition, processing and application processes. Information
management personal skills in this work will be considered as a more general
part – critical thinking, creativity and research skills. Information
management is the competence to manage the key information processes (defining
goals and needs, locating sources, choosing a search strategy, evaluating
information, selecting, using, organizing and evaluating) integrating
information technology, information literacy, critical thinking, creativity,
and research abilities and service wider academic education and personal
development goals in the context of lifelong learning.
Critical thinking is one
of the most important skills in an open democratic society. It’s active,
involving a knowledge process that requires participation and communication,
and the creative use of ideas and information. To think critically is
constantly questioning, looking for answers to various surveys, having your own
opinion and being able to defend it. In order to develop critical thinking,
appropriate and effective methods must be used: group training, team and
project tasks, critical thinking, expressing one’s opinion, being tolerant of
others, self-learning, developing the ability to evaluate information from
different positions. Different methods are used to develop critical thinking.
With the growth of the
flow and meaning of electronic information, taking into account such features
of electronic information as expediency, ease of use, accessibility, and
information management cannot be separated from the ability to use information
and communication technologies.
Critical thinking is
considered to be a process involving individuals who are actively considering
information and manipulating it to make practical use of the accumulation of
new knowledge and concepts in order to open up new perspectives and
opportunities and solve conflicts in the modern world. It is necessary to
combine their thinking with another thinking. To think critically – to be
curious, to doubt, to consider, to discuss, to ask questions, to look for
alternatives to the ideas expressed, to have an opinion and to rationally
defend it, to be able to appreciate and to carefully translate information and
to use it creatively.
The ability to think
critically will help you adapt to the needs of the 21st century and provide an
opportunity to objectively assess everything you learn and what we do.
Remembering all the facts
is not critical thinking. Remembering is an important mental ability. When we
perceive that machines like computers have memory – and even better than most
people – we realize that memories are not adequate for thinking.
Critical thinking is
independent thinking. This is the job that has to be done by yourself.
Information is the
initial, not the final point of critical thinking. Thinking is the work that
actually carries out the learning outcomes. Critical thinking transforms
traditional learning into personal, meaningful, useful and continuous.
Critical thinking begins
with questions, from issues to be solved.
requires reasonable arguments. Critically-minded people are challenging their
problem solving, justifying them with solid arguments and persuasive motives.
Argumentation consists of four main points: assertion – the idea of an
intelligent person. The claim is supported by certain facts, and each is based
on evidence. Justification of facts and evidence is a point of argument. When
making an argument, critically minded people challenge the influence of texts,
traditions, and majority and reject manipulations. Emphasizing the arguments
for certain actions or values in making complex decisions is the essence of
most critical thinking definitions.
Critical thinking is
purposeful thinking, using cognitive strategies and skills to achieve the
desired outcomes. Critical thinking involves searching for
information, exploring ideas, expressing various approaches, solving problems,
arguing, taking decisions, and forming an independent opinion. Skills of
thinking do not allow getting lost in information, help to understand strengths
and weaknesses, to set goals and purposefully pursue them, to choose wisely,
and to re-examine everything when you change the situation. Critical thinking
adopts different opinions, views, and especially appreciates those who are based
on strong arguments.
The term ”critical
thinking” has been used for decades in the education system, but different
groups treat it differently. For many of the well-known educators, critical
thinking is a higher level” thinking, where ”higher” is the higher step of
taxonomy developed by B. Bloom.
Taxonomy of B. Bloom’s
and his colleagues’ education tasks is useful in evaluating and
“manipulating” the levels of thinking. Using taxonomy, you can see
the differences between “lower” and “higher” questions.
Educational Process –
Taxonomy of B. Bloom’s Cognitive Goals (taxonomy – a scheme that classifies
individual elements according to a particular system, shows their interfaces).
B. Bloom divided the goals of the field of cognition into 6 levels by becoming
simpler and therefore changing them more complicated: Knowledge is information
of memory, reproduction, and recognition. Understanding means the
ability to perceive information, to see the meaning, to associate with another material.
Application – the ability to implement ideas, rules, methods in specific situations.
Analysis- is the ability to see the structure of the information and how it
is organized, to divide the whole into parts. Synthesis – it’s an
individual combination of elements or parts, the combination, the creation of
something new. Evaluation – is the determination of the value of a
particular subject, characterizing it according to certain criteria. Analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation associated with higher thinking skills. In order to
create something new, you need to have the knowledge, understand it, be able to
customize it, isolate the individual elements, build it newly, and be able to
evaluate the relevance of your new creative work. Critical thinking can be
called the cause of personality and environment change. Critical thinking
encourages constant renewal, self-adjustment. To sum up, critical thinking can
be defined as mental processes that are most in line with the public education
of responsible citizens: Make up your mind, rationally choose from several ideas,
and solve problems.
How do I develop my
critical thinking skills?
I have to try to be
equally, honest in all situations. Always asking questions about myself in all
situations, I have the same principle and value, they are not given?
Reflect my thoughts and
actions. Understand my values and weaknesses that I really know. How do biases
and prejudices affect my mind?
I should not be afraid to
seriously consider ideas that conflict with the beliefs I have. Do not
scrupulously reject other opinions, ask myself how often my doubt my beliefs
when I have evidence that they will not fall. How often do I get my views when
it does not coincide with the opinion of most?
I have to be sensitive
and empathetic to a different opinion, try not to judge, not to condemn, but to
understand why people are so extensive, working? I should always ask questions
and track them down.