Push/Pull factors
Push factors are those negative conditions that compel people to migrate away from their home countries. Pull factors are those positive consitions that draw people to a new location, such as the promise of employment, land, wealth, freedom to express beliefs, and absence of racial prejudice.
Cultural Pluralism
Manifested when members of a secondary culture are able to interact fully with the controlling culture without lossing any of their home culture characteristics.  
Cultural Relatvism
No belief or value is inherently good or bad, culture determines this.

Thre are ethical and moral absolutes which are reflected in our culture, any culture that doesn’t share these values is wrong.
Adapting to a new culture without sacrificing the first culture.Absorbing cultural expectations, beliefs, values, and culturally shared meanings without losing previous cultural experiences gained in the language of origin provides a rich context in which EL can thrive.
Zero Tolerance
zero period
Zero periods are a useful support for ELs but they are not required in order to recieve intervention.  They are not mandated by the state of CA but they are up to each individual school district.
cultural load 
Understanding the relationship between a culture and a langauge and how much cultural knowledge may be required for a student to be able to comprehend the meaning of words or be involved in an activity of the new language.The idea that the ability to learn new information is supported or delayed by the relationship that exists between culture and language.
types of diffusion
Contagious DiffusionA branch of expansion diffusion, if refers to a cultural trait spreading across a population like a disease.

 Relocation DiffusionRefers tot he process of spreading ideas around the world. it refers to the theory that when people move around the world, they carry their ideas with them.Expansion DiffusionThe spread of innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continueously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.Stimulus DiffusionAn idea is integrated or transmitted from one culture to another which also improves on the same idea to create another ida or invention.Hierarchical DiffusionThe spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authroity or power to other persons or places.

A language census used  to collect data every March for use by the CA department of education.They collect infor on ELs and FEPs by grade and primary language, # of certified staff members and #s of FEPs who were ELs the previous year, the census also looks for types of instructional settings and services recieved by ELs.

1.4 million ELs in CA schools, 25% lack English fluency.50% of CA children’s come from families with immigrant parents and of those approx 15% are unauthorized.


Two distinct cultures that coexist without one dominating the other.
Schumann’s hypothesisPsychological distance and social distance
Psychological distance:measured by a learner’s degree of comfort and is affected by motivation, culture shock, and ego stability.Social Distance:affected by how long the learner intends to remain in the second culture, his power position in the second culture, and his ability to integrate into the social fabric.
multicultural education
Must be frequently examined to ensure it is fully accurate, includes a range of perspectives, is accessible to all students and addresses social issues and changes with the goal of transforming society as a whole.
cultural universal
A belief, value or act that all cultures shares.

Cultural Identification
Crystallization:Used to describe ELs whose of identification remains completely with the home culture.Cross-over:Els are ashamed the home culture and embrace the new culture. Common with refugeesCriss-Crosser:Comfortable in both cultres and are typically culturally sophisticated due to a high degree of exposure to diversity.
Stages of culture assimilation
Euphoria:Honeymoon phase, newness and unfamiliarityCulture Shock:Disorientation and profound lonlinessAdaptation:gradual acceptance of cultural differencesAssimilation/Acculturation:Assimilation is when a person or group begins to resemble those of another group.Acculturation explains the process of cultural change and psychological change that results following meeting between cultures.